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  • Cancer Research Funded at St. Andrews

Photonics Spectra
Jul 2003
Scientists at the University of St. Andrews in the UK have received a grant of more than $80,000 to investigate the differences between normal and cancerous cells using optical methods. The Medical Research Council, the Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council supported the Discipline Hopping Award. Based on work by Andrew Riches at the university's Bute Medical School and by Kishan Dholakia at the School of Physics and Astronomy, the researchers will induce cancer in cultured human cells and noninvasively examine samples immobilized by optical tweezers.

Sometimes referred to as the surface normal or ‘surface norm’; the normal is an axis that forms right angles with a surface that light is incident upon or with other lines. The normal is used to determine incident, reflective and refractive angles, as all of these angles are sketched and measured with respect to the normal of any given surface.
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