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Light-Activated Compound Calms Nerves

Photonics.com
Mar 2007
ST. LOUIS, March 6, 2007 -- A compound that halts nerve cell activity in the brain only when exposed to light is showing promise as a potential treatment for epilepsy. 

"This is daydreaming at this point, but we might one day combine this drug with a small implanted light to stop seizures," said Steven Mennerick, associate professor of psychiatry and of anatomy and neurobiology at Washington University School of Medicine. "Some current experimental epilepsy treatments involve the implanting of an electrode, so why not a light?"NerveCells.jpg
A compound that halts nerve cell activity only when exposed to light glows in this image of two nerve cells. Scientists hope the compound will one day be adapted for use as an epilepsy treatment. (Image: Washington University School of Medicine)
The new compound activates the same receptor used by many anesthetics and tranquilizers, making it harder for a brain cell to respond to stimulation. Mennerick, senior author on a paper about the research, and colleagues including lead author Dr. Larry Eisenman, assistant professor of neurology, tested the drug on cells in culture set up to behave like they were involved in a seizure, with the cells rapidly and repeatedly firing. When they added the new drug and shone a light on the cells, the seizure-like firing pattern calmed.

If the drug is adapted for epilepsy, Mennerick said, it is most likely to help in cases where seizures consistently originate from the same brain region. Theoretically, doctors could keep a patient on regular doses of the new drug and implant a small fiber optic light in the dysfunctional region. The light would activate the drug only when seizure-like firing patterns started to appear.

Scientists in the laboratory of Douglas F. Covey, professor of molecular biology and pharmacology, created the drug by linking a steroid known to have anesthetic effects with a molecule, known as NBD, that fluoresces in response to blue light. Mennerick and colleagues were hoping to use the new compound, which they call the NBD-steroid, to trace the steroid's path in the nervous system. To their initial disappointment, the researchers found that adding the fluorescent tag to the steroid had disabled it.

"Normally, the steroid keeps the cell quiet in the face of stimuli that would otherwise cause it to fire," Mennerick said. "That's why drugs like barbiturates and Valium, which act on the same receptor as the steroid, are sedatives -- they quiet the nerve system down."

When dosed with NBD-steroid, nerve cells still responded to stimuli as readily as they had prior to exposure. Just to see where the modified steroid was going, though, researchers exposed the cells to light.

"All of a sudden, the response to the steroid was back, and the nerve cells were more reluctant to react to stimuli," Mennerick said. "And we knew we had found something very interesting."

To confirm what was happening, scientists dosed two of a nerve cell's many different branches with NBD-steroid. When they shone a light on one of the branches, its readiness to respond decreased, while the readiness of the branch not exposed to light remained the same. Department of Anesthesiology colleagues tested the compound's effects on tadpoles.

"Tadpoles rapidly take up drugs through their skin, so they're frequently used to test potential anesthetics," Mennerick said. "And of course, given that it's a photoactive drug, they make a nice test subject because they're mostly translucent."

Tadpoles swimming in a solution of NBD-steroid went to sleep at the bottom of their beaker when exposed to light. Mennerick and his colleagues are currently seeking to identify or create an animal model of epilepsy that lets them test the NBD-steroid's potential as a therapeutic.

They are also looking for a new fluorescent tag that responds to longer wavelengths of light. Unlike many photoactive compounds, the NBD-steroid responds not to ultraviolet light but to light from the blue region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This helps because the longer wavelengths of blue light penetrate farther into tissue than ultraviolet light and are less damaging to it. Molecules that fluoresce in response to even longer wavelengths of light are available, and scientists are testing whether any of them can create the same effect when bound to the steroid.

Funding from the Bantly Foundation and the National Institutes of Health supported this research, which is reported online in the journal Nature Neuroscience. For more information, visit: http://mednews.wustl.edu


GLOSSARY
cell
1. A single unit in a device for changing radiant energy to electrical energy or for controlling current flow in a circuit. 2. A single unit in a device whose resistance varies with radiant energy. 3. A single unit of a battery, primary or secondary, for converting chemical energy into electrical energy. 4. A simple unit of storage in a computer. 5. A limited region of space. 6. Part of a lens barrel holding one or more lenses.
light
Electromagnetic radiation detectable by the eye, ranging in wavelength from about 400 to 750 nm. In photonic applications light can be considered to cover the nonvisible portion of the spectrum which includes the ultraviolet and the infrared.
photonics
The technology of generating and harnessing light and other forms of radiant energy whose quantum unit is the photon. The science includes light emission, transmission, deflection, amplification and detection by optical components and instruments, lasers and other light sources, fiber optics, electro-optical instrumentation, related hardware and electronics, and sophisticated systems. The range of applications of photonics extends from energy generation to detection to communications and...
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