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Manatee-Boat Score Tackled

Photonics.com
Oct 2007
WOODS HOLE, Mass., Oct. 16, 2007 -- A squeaky-voiced cartoon mouse may capture hearts in central Florida, but manatees -- with their round heads, beady eyes and bodies up to 13 feet long -- have charmed people along the state’s coasts. Wildlife refuges have been established for them and tourists pay to swim (supervised) in their company. To many, they are a vanishing symbol of Florida's wildlife; they have been listed as an endangered species since 1966.

Regulations designed to prevent collisions between manatees and boats are already in place in Florida, but dozens of the marine mamals continue to be struck, usually with grim results: broken bones, gashes and a near-record 86 deaths in 2006.

Searching for better ways to protect manatees, a team of researchers is using digital tags, or D-tags, to provide insights into their behavior that could prevent the collisions.

At first, the team used a large tethered balloon equipped with a video camera to hover above manatees and record their reactions. Half the manatees they filmed appeared unfazed by passing boats. The other half left their shallow, seagrass habitat for deeper, darker or cloudier water. Without a way to see under water, it was frustratingly hard to determine precisely how the boats influenced manatee behavior.
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Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution engineer Tom Hurst (right) and his colleague Mark Johnson created a customized attachment for using D-tags on manatees. Designed to be noninvasive, the tag, which could fit on a slice of sandwich bread, weighs as much as a cell phone. (Photo: Tom Kleindinst, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)
“We couldn’t gauge their reactions,” said Douglas Nowacek, a biological oceanographer from Florida State University. “Were they going deep? Calling to each other? Seeking each other out? Or trying to hide?”

To find out, this summer Nowacek harkened back to his graduate student and postdoctoral days at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. In the late 1990s, he was part of a team of biologists and engineers who were devising a small, high-tech device called a D-tag, short for digital acoustic recording tag. It is affixed temporarily to whales with suction cups and records their movements, along with the sounds they make and the sounds they hear under water.

With the right modifications, Nowacek and colleagues reasoned the tag could be used on manatees. Once the marine mammals’ behavior was better understood, boaters could be educated and could adjust their own behavior on the water to cause less disturbance to the manatees.
manatees2.jpg
Manatees have round heads, squinty eyes and bodies up to 13 feet long. Despite their lumbering appearance, they are graceful swimmers — and to many, a vanishing symbol of wild Florida. Researchers hope digital tags, or D-tags, will provide insights into their behavior that could prevent them from being hit by boats. (Photo: Tom Hurst, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)

Researchers hope the D-tags will help provide a window into the manatees’ world, in the same way they have helped researchers learn more about whale behavior in an effort to prevent whale-ship collisions. The main purpose of the tag is to record sound, which can be sampled up to 96,000 times a second. In addition, sensors on the tag record temperatures in the water surrounding the manatees, as well as the animals’ depth, pitch, roll and direction.

Synchronizing the boat sounds with the manatees' behaviors allows researchers to learn how manatees react -- or don't react, as filmed observations showed -- to boats. It will also allow researchers to determine if manatees react differently in shallow water versus deep water, where they might have more places to hide.

This August and September, it was the job of Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission biologists Chip Deutsch and Margie Barlas to catch manatees and attach the belt and D-tag. Their work required a team with as many as 15 to 20 people: Some working from a boat to perform the tagging, and others as spotters from an airplane. Once in sight of an identified manatee, the team dropped a large, open net behind the boat. With the manatee inside, they pulled the net closed, like strings on a purse, and drew it to the rear of the boat. The team pulled each 600- to 2000-pound manatee onto the vessel, which had a large, flat bottom and an open stern ideal for bringing large animals on board. Once there, the animals received a full health assessment, including measurements such as back-fat thickness (a measure of body condition), and taking blood, nasal mucus, fecal, urine, and even tear samples.

On board, the team attached the belt and D-tag, which would start recording movements, depth, and sounds within two to three days after the animal’s release. Two days after that, the tag popped off then was picked up by the team and shuttled to a lab to download the data.

This year, a total of 10 wild manatees were tagged. Nowacek and Rycyk said it is too early to draw conclusions about what they hear on the tags, although the sound files are interesting. “We hear a lot of chewing,” Nowacek said.

Roars recorded from some passing boats was startling, Rycyk added. “When a boat flies by, especially a boat moving fast, it is really, really loud,” she said. What's more, boats can be heard for up to a minute before actually passing near the manatee.

Researchers take notes about local boats approaching or passing the manatees. They want to find out if the speed, and even the type, of boats affect manatees’ behavior. For years, Florida wildlife managers have asked boaters to slow down in areas populated by manatees. Reducing speed, they theorized, would give boaters a better chance of seeing and avoiding manatees on the surface and would give the animals fair warning to move away.BR>
Manatees spend quiet lives resting and eating grass near the surface, where they share space with increasing numbers of recreational and commercial boats. Manatee biologists with the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission estimate that at least 3000 animals in the state occupy the same waters as approximately one million registered recreational boats and thousands more out-of-state boats in the summer.

“Granted, not all of these boats are in the water at the same time,” Nowacek said. “Still, it’s a lot of boat traffic when you compare it to the manatee population.”

Boat propellers often leave distinctive scarring patterns across manatees’ backs which researchers use to tell the animals apart and keep track of them. Of the nearly 2000 manatees in the state’s “scar catalogue,” more than half exhibit scar patterns that are evidence they have been struck by boats more than once.

“We’ve had dead manatees come in for necropsies (to determine how they died) that have scars, healed-over broken ribs or other evidence from 50 boat interactions,” Nowacek said. “That means one animal has been hit 50 times by boats in the course of its life. It’s astounding.”

But as the number of collisions has ballooned, critics have argued that slower speeds actually harm the animals, which may not hear the motors of a slow-moving craft until the vessels are nearly on top of their backs.

The current research will be essential for addressing this and other questions as policymakers create regulations designed to reduce collisions. For example, little is now known about how many times each day a manatee is disturbed by vessels, said biologist Chip Deutsch with the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Or how much time manatees have to avoid a collision when they hear a boat.

“We will have a detailed picture,” said Athena Rycyk, a doctoral student at Florida State University working with Nowacek. “We will be able to ask questions like, what does a 20-foot boat traveling 200 meters from a manatee swimming in six feet of water sound like? This can help us determine what, if any, acoustical cues manatees do or do not react to.”

Recording sound will also help scientists learn about the sounds that manatees make: what type of vocalizations they use, how often they vocalize and how vocalizations change depending on their activity. The D-tags will even allow the scientists to learn if the manatees make more or fewer calls at certain periods of the day, or when they are alone or with other manatees.

Nowacek knew the D-tag could work on manatees, after testing the device on two animals during a 2001 study in Belize. But in the tests, the D-tag’s suction cup attachment -- intended to adhere easily (and noninvasively) to smooth-sided whales -- would not stick to the rough-skinned manatee. He contacted WHOI research engineer Mark Johnson, who along with his engineering colleague Tom Hurst, teamed up to make a custom-designed device for manatees.

The tag's final design enclosed electronics inside a watertight, black plastic housing that they could mount on the belt with a plate and several screws. (It resembles a BlackBerry attached to a person’s belt). This design didn’t move around -- latching securely, like a ski boot into a binding, which avoided skin irritation and ensured the collection of quality data. Yet it would still easily detach, at a preprogrammed time, after gathering data for two days. The belt has other tracking devices for other scientific studies, including a GPS tag that provides coordinates for both boats and manatees. (It is removed by biologists several weeks later.)

Inside the tag’s housing is a chunk of syntactic foam that keeps the device afloat when it is released; a radio beacon that beeps to help researchers find and recover the tag; batteries (the same type used in cell phones); a motor that triggers the release at a predetermined time; and the electronic components that record data.

Before trying the tags on wild manatees, Nowacek and colleagues tested the D-tags on captive manatees living at the Mote Marine Laboratory. Then they tested them on a wild manatee undergoing rehabilitation after a boat collision, and another captured for a health assessment.

In August, scientists turned their attention to Lemon Bay in southwest Florida. It teems with watercraft, from motorized fishing boats to luxury yachts, traveling through a channel connected to the Gulf of Mexico. With its warm temperature and lush seagrass beds, Lemon Bay is also populated by manatees. Nowacek said they will complete a second year of field work using the tags before they spend a year sorting through the data and conducting analysis. "It's fairly complex data to sort out -- boats moving, manatees moving, vessel noise and manatee behavior," he said.

This fall, the tags were sent back to Hurst for cleaning and modifications in preparation for the 2008 field season. Among his challenges will be to make the tag ever smaller and lighter, with new sensor features and longer battery operating time. “Tags are like cell phones and video cameras -- they keep shrinking in size,” he said.

Meanwhile, Hurst is also turning his attention to D-tags designed for use on other marine species: dolphins, harbor porpoises and larger whales.

Funding for this research came from the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.

For more information, visit: www.whoi.edu/oceanus


GLOSSARY
photonics
The technology of generating and harnessing light and other forms of radiant energy whose quantum unit is the photon. The science includes light emission, transmission, deflection, amplification and detection by optical components and instruments, lasers and other light sources, fiber optics, electro-optical instrumentation, related hardware and electronics, and sophisticated systems. The range of applications of photonics extends from energy generation to detection to communications and...
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