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  • Atomic Changes Seen in 4-D
Nov 2008
PASADENA, Calif., Nov. 20, 2008 -- A new technique dubbed four-dimensional (4-D) electron microscopy allows the real-time, real-space visualization of fleeting changes in the structure and shape of atomic-scale matter for the first time.

The new technique was developed in the Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology, directed by Ahmed Zewail, the Linus Pauling Professor of Chemistry and professor of physics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Zewail was awarded the Nobel for pioneering the science of femtochemistry, the use of ultrashort laser flashes to observe fundamental chemical reactions -- atoms uniting into molecules, then breaking apart back into atoms -- occurring at the timescale of the femtosecond, or one millionth of a billionth of a second. The work "captured atoms and molecules in motion," Zewail said, akin to the freeze-frame stills snapped by 19th-century photographer Eadweard Muybridge of a galloping horse (which proved for the first time that a horse does indeed lift all four hooves off the ground as it gallops) and other moving objects.
4-D electron microscopy used to visualize the nanodrumming phenomenon. (Image courtesy Nano Letters; images and diagram produced at Caltech)
Snapshots of molecules in motion "gave us the time dimension," Zewail said, "but what we didn't have was the dimensions of space, the structure. We didn't know what the horse looked like. Did it have a long tail? Beautiful eyes? My dream since 1999 was to come up with a way to look not just at time but also at the spatial domain; to see the architecture of a complex system at the atomic scale, as it changes over time, be it for physical or biological matter."

Scientists can observe the static structure of objects with a resolution that is better than a billionth of a meter in length using electron microscopes, which generate a stream of individual electrons that scatter off objects to produce an image. Electrons are used to visualize the smallest of objects, on the atomic scale, because the wavelength of the radiation source used by a microscope must be shorter than the space between the atoms. This can be accomplished using electrons, and in particular -- because the wavelength of an electron shrinks as its velocity increases -- by electrons that have been accelerated to dizzying speeds.

But just having electrons isn't sufficient to capture the behavior of atoms in both space and time; the electrons have to be carefully doled out, so that they arrive at the sample at specific time intervals. Zewail and his colleagues have achieved this by introducing the fourth dimension of time into high-resolution electron microscopy, in what has been termed ultrafast "single-electron" imaging, where every electron trajectory is precisely controlled in time and space.

The resulting image produced by each electron represents a femtosecond still at that moment in time. Like the frames in a film, the sequential images generated by many millions of such images can be assembled into a digital movie of motion at the atomic scale. (4D microscopy videos can be viewed here.)

As reported in a paper in the Nov. 21 issue of the journal Science, Zewail and colleagues applied their new 4-D electron microscopy to observe the behavior of the atoms in superthin sheets of gold and graphite. Graphite, the material in pencils, consists of layers of carbon atoms locked into a sheet-like array. The atoms move in a unique and coherent way on the femtosecond timescale.

However, the researchers found that on a slightly longer, picosecond (one thousandth of a billionth of a second) scale, the graphite nanosheets produce sound waves. In the images, they directly visualized the elastic movements of the sheets and determined the force holding them together, which is described by a stress-strain property known as "Young's modulus." The 4-D movies produced from the frames revealed the behavior in space and time.
Nanodrumming of graphite, visualized with 4-D electron microscopy. (Image courtesy Nano Letters; images produced at Caltech)
In a second paper in the current issue of the journal Nano Letters, Zewail and his colleagues described their visualization of the changes in a nanometer-thick graphite membrane on a longer time scale, up to a thousandth of a second. The researchers first blasted the sample with a pulse of heat. The heated carbon atoms began to vibrate in a random, nonsynchronized fashion. Over time, however, the oscillations of the individual atoms became synchronized as different modes of the material locked in phase, emerging to become a heartbeat-like "drumming." Digital video, slowed down more than a billion times, illustrates this nanodrumming mechanical phenomenon, which displays a well-defined resonance that is nearly 100 times higher than can be detected by the human eardrum.

"With this 4-D imaging technique, atomic-scale motions, which lead to structural, morphological, and nanomechanical phenomena, can now be visualized directly, and hopefully understood," said Zewail, who is now expanding the research to biological imaging within cells in collaboration with Grant Jensen, an associate professor of biology at Caltech.

The researchers are currently using the 4-D microscope to image the components of cells, such as proteins and ribosomes, the cellular machinery that makes proteins. They have already produced images of a stained rat cell and, more recently, of a protein crystal and cell in vitreous water. "The goal is to enhance the structural resolution in the images of these biomaterials by taking single-pulse snapshots before they move or deteriorate, and to follow their dynamics in real time," Zewail said.

In a recent commentary on the development, Sir John Thomas of Cambridge University, who is a world-renowned expert in electron microscopy, said the invention and its applications are "revolutionary." "The door is now open for myriad explorations in the physical and biological sciences," Thomas added.

"The sequences of images produced by this technique are remarkable," said David Tirrell, chair of Caltech's Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. "They not only provide unprecedented insights into molecular and materials behavior, they do so in an especially satisfying fashion by allowing direct observation of complex structural changes in real space and real time. These experiments will lead us to fundamentally new ways of thinking about molecules and materials."

The technology was developed with support from the Laboratory for Molecular Science and by grants from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health. A patent on the conceptual framework of this approach was granted to Caltech in 2006.

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Denoting the use of binary notation; i.e., the representation of data by bits (1 or 0).
A charged elementary particle of an atom; the term is most commonly used in reference to the negatively charged particle called a negatron. Its mass at rest is me = 9.109558 x 10-31 kg, its charge is 1.6021917 x 10-19 C, and its spin quantum number is 1/2. Its positive counterpart is called a positron, and possesses the same characteristics, except for the reversal of the charge.
An instrument consisting essentially of a tube 160 mm long, with an objective lens at the distant end and an eyepiece at the near end. The objective forms a real aerial image of the object in the focal plane of the eyepiece where it is observed by the eye. The overall magnifying power is equal to the linear magnification of the objective multiplied by the magnifying power of the eyepiece. The eyepiece can be replaced by a film to photograph the primary image, or a positive or negative relay...
The technology of generating and harnessing light and other forms of radiant energy whose quantum unit is the photon. The science includes light emission, transmission, deflection, amplification and detection by optical components and instruments, lasers and other light sources, fiber optics, electro-optical instrumentation, related hardware and electronics, and sophisticated systems. The range of applications of photonics extends from energy generation to detection to communications and...
In optics, the mechanical tension, compression or shear in optical glass due to internal stress caused by improper cooling or annealing during manufacture of the glass or the subsequent working of molded parts.
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