Before semiconductor manufacturers can implement 157-nm lithography, they need functional photoresists, reticles and pellicles, durable lens materials and high-power, line-narrowed lasers.
Doug Anberg and Warren Flack
Reducing the design rules of seminconductor devices enables smaller components and represents the most economical means for the industry to reduce costs while improving device performance. This economic driver is at the root of each advancement in optical lithography and continues to produce smaller and smaller critical dimensions.
Phase-shift mask techniques and optical proximity correction have allowed the semiconductor industry to extend 248-nm KrF technology - first introduced for the 250-nm node - down to sub- 180-nm design rules. Similarly, industry leaders expect that 193-nm ArF technology, entering production this year, will extend below 120 nm...