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Photonics Handbook

Data Tables: Optical Thin-Film Materials

Tables showing parameters of the most frequently used physical vapor deposition materials for a wide variety of applications.



DATA TABLES: OPTICAL THIN-FILM MATERIALS

             Identification                                                  
Physical Parameters    

Material
  Name
       
Material
Formula
                  
Transparent
Region(µm)
(see note a)
                     Index at
Wavelength (µm)            
    (see note b)
 
Method/
 Holder
             
      Evap.
  Temp. °C)
(see note c)
OXIDES                    
Aluminum Oxide   Al2O3   0.2 - 8   1.65, (0.50)
1.60, (1.00)
  E-beam
W
  2100
                     
Chromium Oxide   Cr2O3   0.6 - >5   2.20, (>0.8)   E-beam
Mo
  2000
                     
Hafnium Dioxide
  HfO2
  0.25 - 11
  2.05, (0.30)
1.98, (0.40)
1.95, (0.50)
1.92, (0.7 - 1.5)
  E-beam
Mo
  2500
                     
Indium Oxide
  In2O3
   0.4 - 9
   2.05, (0.50)
  Resistance
Alumina
   600
                     
Indium-Tin Oxide
  ITO
  0.4 - 2
  2.05, (0.50)
1.45, (1.00)
  Resistance
Alumina
  600
                     
Niobium Pentoxide
  Nb2O5   0.45 - >5
  2.35, (0.45)
2.28, (0.50)
2.22, (0.60)
2.17, (1.00)
  E-beam
Ta
  1400
                     
Praseodymium Oxide
  Pr2O3   0.3 - 8
  1.84, (0.40)
1.78, (0.50)
1.75, (0.7 - 2)
  E-beam
Graphite
  1900
                     
Scandium Oxide
  Sc2O3
  0.3 - 12
  1.92, (0.40)
1.89, (0.55)
1.86, (0.9 - 2)
  E-beam
Graphite
  2400
                     
Silicon Dioxide
  SiO2
  0.2 - 7
  1.52, (0.30)
1.49, (0.40)
1.46, (0.55)
1.44, (1.00)
  E-beam
Alumina,
Graphite
  1600
                     
Silicon Monoxide
  SiO
  0.45 - 8
  1.90, (0.50)
1.85, (1.00)
1.83, (4.00)
  Resistance
W, Ta, Mo
  1100
                     
Tantalum Pentoxide
  Ta2O5
  0.35 - 10
  2.40, (0.30)
2.09, (0.55 - 2)
  E-beam
Ta, Graphite
  2100
                     
Tatanium Dioxide
Ti3O5 starting material
  TiO2
  0.45 - 11
  2.45, (0.45)
2.36, (0.50)
2.29, (0.60)
2.25, (0.70)
2.21, (1.00)
  E-beam
Mo, Cu
  1500
                     
Yttrium Oxide
  Y2O3
  ~0.25 - 11
  1.83, (0.40)
1.80, (0.50)
1.75, (2.00)
1.42, (9.00)
  E-beam
W, Graphite
  2400
                     
Zirconium Oxide
  ZrO2
  0.3 - 10
  2.20, (0.30)
2.12, (0.35)
2.10, (0.40)
2.05, (0.5 - 2.0)
  E-beam
Graphite
  2200

Oxide notes:
(a) Quarter-wave thickness exhibits <2% absorption; (b) Index corresponds to wavelength listed, IAD increases oxide indices by 1.04x; (c) Evaporation temperature at pressure near 1 E-04 torr; (d) Approximate density in film form. ARC is antireflection coating.


                                                Deposition Parameters
                                                                                     Application Notes

  Density
 (gm/cc)   
see noted)   
                   
Rate
(A/s)
                    
Substrate
   Temp.
     (°C)
                                Pressure
   Oxygen
    (torr)            
                 
Combine
    with
               
                Comments
3.6   2   250   ~1 E-05   SiO2, Sc2O3   UV laser ARC and high reflectors. Mirror protection.

                     
5.2   5   ~200-300
  5 E-05
  Glass, Si,
Ge
  Very hard, resistant to acids and
alkalis; sunglass coating. Binding layer 10 nm.
                     
9.7
  2
  150 - 250
  2 - 5 E-05   Glass, SiO2, Oxides   UV laser multilayers; high damage
threshold 355 nm. IR mirror
overcoat; emitter wire coating.
                     
7.2
  2
   250
   1 E-04
  SiO2, Glass,
InSb, MgF2
  Hard, protective coating for
metal mirrors.
                     
7.2
  3
  350
  1 E-04
  SiO2, Glass
  Transparent conductor:
electro-optic panels, displays.
Sn doping availability.
                     
7.2
  3   ~250
  2 E-04   Glass, CeF3   High-index, wide-band
multilayers, VIS ARC,  hard
films. Requires post air-bake
unless IAD.
                     
6.9
  3   300
  1 E-04   Oxides   Component in wide-band
VIS ARC. Does not disassociate.
                     
3.8
  3
  200 - 250
  1 E-04   MgF2, SiO2   UV ARC 248 nm. ARC on high-
damage semiconductors.
Threshold at 355 nm with MgF2.
                     
2.1
  5
  200
  5 E-05   Oxides, CeF3   Amorphous vitreous films. High
rate or low substrate
temperatures product stressed,
underdense films.
                     
2.0
  10
  100 - 150
  2 E-06   Oxides, Si,
Ge, Al
  Protecton of Al and Ag mirrors;
ARC Si; low tensile stress,
amorph. high density;
component or IR multilayers
to 5 µm.
                     
8.7
  2.5
  175 - 300
  2 E-04   SiO2   VIS and NIR filters; hard
protective films; 1064- nm
laser coatings.
                     
4.0
  5
  250
  1 - 2 E-04   SiO2, Oxides   Amorphous below 300 °C,
crystalline above 300 °C.
Durable multilayers; protective
coating, saltwater-resistant.
high tensile stress.
                     
4.5
  3
  150 - 300
  1 E-04   Oxides, Fluorides, Ag, Al   IR mirror overcoat; wide-band
VIS ARC layer. Water absorption
bands at low temperature.
                     
5.0
  3
  200 - 300
  1 E-04   SiO2, Oxides   VIS multilayers, high damage
threshold to 350 nm, hard films,
inhomogeneous index gradient,
modifications available.


             Identification                                                  
Physical Parameters    

Material
  Name
       
Material
Formula
                  
Transparent
Region(µm)
(see note a)
                     Index at
Wavelength (µm)            
    (see note b)
 
Method/
 Holder
                
      Evap.
  Temp. °C)
(see note c)
FLUORIDES                    
Aluminum Fluoride
  AiF3   0.2 - 12
  1.36, (0.60)
1.34, (1.00)
1.30, (8 - 10)
  Resistance,
E-beam
Graphite
  1100
                     
Calcium Fluoride
  CaF2   0.15 - 12
  1.35, (0.2 - 10)
  Resistance
Ta, Mo
  1200
                     
Cerium Fluoride
  CeF3
  ~0.3 - 11
  1.62, (0.50)
1.60, (1.00)
1.44, (8 - 10)
  Resistance
E-beam
Ta, Mo
  1300
                     
Lanthanum Fluoride
  LaF3
   0.25 - 11
   1.64, (0.30)
1.60, (0.50)
1.35, (10.00)
  Resistance
Mo, Ta
  1300
                     
Magnesium Fluoride
  MgF2
  0.15 - 6
  1.42, (0.30)
1.39, (0.40)
1.38, (0.55)
1.36, (0.80)

  Resistance
  950
                     
Thorium Fluoride
  ThF4   0.25 - 14
  1.55, (0.55)
1.40, (5 - 8)
1.36, (8 - 12)
  Resistance
E-beam
Ta
  800
                     
Yttrium Fluoride
  YF3
  0.25 - 11
  1.45, (5.00)
1.30, (10.00)
  Resistance
Alumina
  800

FLUORIDES NOTES:
Rates for all fluorides are 10 - 20 A/S; pressure ~5 E-05 torr.













INFRARED MATERIALS
                   
Cadmium Telluride
  CdTe                          
0.9 - 25                     
  2.65, (1 - 10)                     
  Resistance,
Alumina, Mo

             
900
                     
Germanium
  Ge   2.0 - 12
  4.10 - 400, (>2)
  E-beam
Ta, Graphite,
Alumina
  1600
                     
Lead Telluride
  PbTe
  3.5 - 80 (300K)
7 - 80 (77 K)
  5.40, (5 - 10)   Resistance
Alumina,
Graphite
  1100
                     
Silicon
  Si
  1.1 - 8
  3.40, (>1.2)
  E-beam
Ta, Graphite
  1300
                     
Zinc Selenide
  ZnSe
  0.6 - 16
  2.60, (0.60)
2.50, (1.00)
2.35, (5 - 10)
  Resistance
Silica, Ta, Mo
  900
                     
Zinc Sulfide
  ZnS   0.4 - 14
  2.50, (0.40)
2.35, (0.60)
2.25, (1.00)
2.15, (5 - 12)
  Resistance
Ta, Silica, Mo
  1000


                 
IR MATERIALS NOTES: Rates ~5 A/s; pressure <1 E-05 torr.


                                                Deposition Parameters
                                                                              Application Notes

  Density
 (gm/cc)   
see noted)   
                   


           
Substrate
   Temp.
     (°C)
                               
      
     
Combine
    with
                          
         Comments
2.9  
  250 - 300
 

Fluorides,
ZnS, ZnSe
  AR UV-IR excimer laser.

                     
3.0  
  200
 
  Sc2O3, ZnSe   UV-IR, UV laser coatings, low
packing density, hygroscopic.
                     
6.0
 
  250
 
  ZnSe,ZnS,
Fluorides
  Amorphous, hard, water-
resistant, IRXTM formulation
replacement for the ThF4.
                     
5.8
 
  300
   
  ZnS, ZnSe, Ge
  Low index UV-IR, insoluble.
                     
3.1
 
  250 - 300
 
  Fluorides, Glass
  Lowest index, multilayers,
tensile stress, low packing
density at low substrate
temperature, absorbs water.
                     
8.2
 
  200 - 250
 
  ZnS, ZnSe, Ge   High damage threshold
10.6 µm, radioactive: dust
is hazardous.
                     
8.0
 
  200 - 250
 
  ZnSe, Ge, ZnS
  IR multilayers. Low water
absorption. ThF4 replacement.


     
                   


           

                               
      
     

                          
         
6.0  
                           
150
 
          
ZnSe
                             
IR multilayers, soft.

                     
5.3  
  150
 
 
  Filters.
                     
8.1
 
  150
 
  ZnS, ZnSe
  Far-IR multilayers, filters.
Requires gentle preheating
and evaporation.
                     
2.3
 
  150
   
  SiO, Oxides
  Hard films, SWIR filters.
                     
5.2
 
  150
 
  Fluorides, Ge,
CeF3
  AR multilayers. Decomposes
and reassociates.
                     
3.8
 
  150
 
  Fluorides, Ge,
CeF3
  AR multilayers. Decomposes
and reassociates.

SOURCE: CERAC, inc. with technical assistance from Pellicori Optical Consulting

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