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Photonics Spectra: December 1996

FEATURES
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Laser Chemistry Moves Toward Smaller and Faster Probes
Molecular-level studies examine the effect of individual molecules on the properties of chemistry and materials. Recent progress in such studies has relied on some new laser techniques: Ultrafast...
Jack A. Syage
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Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers Find Their Place in the Lab
The $100 million-plus annual scientific laser market continues to be a prime area of opportunity and focus despite limited research and development expenditures in recent years. Historically...
Pat Edsell
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Lasers Control Molecular Motion
In quantum mechanics, interest has turned toward controlling, rather than explaining, atomic, molecular and electronic processes. The technology of coherent control employs light-induced interference...
Paul Brumer and Moshe Shapiro
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Objective Measurements Improve Imaging Optics
Determining optical quality is no easy task because of the trade-offs in specifying imaging optics. For a quantitative assessment of optics, engineers turn to modulation transfer function...
Dr. Tuckerman Moss
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Lasers Offer Coherent Control of Material Behavior
The goals of laser control in chemistry include manipulation of collective and molecular properties. Femtosecond lasers have already helped study crystal lattices, and more extensive manipulations...
Marc M. Wefers, Hitoshi Kawashima and Keith A. Nelson
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Optical Fiber Reaches from Lab to Factory
The use of fiber optics in the laboratory has been steadily increasing for five years. Optical fiber devices can be used for temperature sensing, pressure sensing, pH measurements and...
Kirk Grim
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Laser Advances Spark Ultrafast Studies
Advances in solid-state short-pulse laser oscillators, amplifiers and ultrafast optics have sparked an explosion in the number of studies of ultrafast phenomena. These experiments include direct...
Christopher J. Bardeen and Kent R. Wilson
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Photomultiplier Tubes See the Light -- One Photon at a Time
Dating archaeological finds, locating schools of fish, measuring food contamination, mapping the stars and monitoring pollution levels are all applications that requirer Raman spectroscopy. This...
Earl Hargert and Craig Walling


TECH PULSE
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Art and Science Collide
MELVILLE, N.Y. -- This colorful image of a dogfish placoid scale was among the top 10 entered in the 22nd annual Nikon International Small World Competition. David K. Terbush of the George Washington...
Stephanie A. Weiss
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New ATM-Switching Technology Boasts Trillion-Bit Network Potential
Scientists at Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs have demonstrated a switching technology that they say will allow communications networks to control 1 trillion bits of information simultaneously; network...
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Coherent Ships Glaucoma-Treating Lasers Overseas
Coherent Inc. of Santa Clara, Calif., announced that it will begin shipment outside the US of a medical laser used in primary open-angle glaucoma treatment. The company designed its Selecta 7000...
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Data Cards to Combine Optical, Microchip Capabilities for PC Interface
Prototype hybrid smart/optical data cards from Drexler Technology Corp. of Mountain View, Calif., will link microchip cards to personal computers using Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard interface...
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Dutch Claim Lead in Fiber Tests
EINDHOVEN, The Netherlands --Heroes are back. A standard feature of the fiber optic scene in the 1980s, so-called hero experiments, in which researchers vie for records in terms of bits times...
Charles T. Troy
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Shattered Beamlet Lens Blamed on Timing Error
LIVERMORE, Calif. -- A high-power experiment on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Beamlet laser destroyed one of the setup's lenses and damaged another. No injuries were reported, but...
Kathleen G. Tatterson
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Europeans Issue Report on Diffractive Optics Technology
JENA, Germany -- The development of a step-by-step fabrication process for diffractive optical elements was announced in the final report of a European research alliance concerned with discoveries...
Kathleen G. Tatterson
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IBM Laser Scientist-Sleuths Solve an Old Astronomy Mystery
YORKTOWN HEIGHTS, N.Y. -- Two IBM scientists, calling on their years of expertise in lasers, believe they have solved the missing starlight mystery -- a.k.a. the diffuse interstellar bands, or...
Charles T. Troy
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Three Lidars Team Up to Probe the Atmosphere
CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- In a joint optical remote-sensing program, scientists from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Atmospheric Technology Div. and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...
Ruth A. Mendonsa
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Nearing the End of the Road
MAINZ, Germany -- The fourth and final glass/ceramic mirror substrate for the Very Large Telescope has been sent from Schott Glaswerke to R.E.O.S.C. near Paris for final finishing. Each of the 8.2-m...
Charles T. Troy
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Sensor Company to Develop Image-Enhancement Processor for US Air Force
Irvine Sensors Corp. of Costa Mesa, Calif., is developing an electronic image-enhancement processor for the US Air Force's Wright Laboratory Avionics Directorate. The processor will be part of an...
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Toshiba Develops Blue-Purple Laser for Next-Generation Digital Storage
Scientists at Toshiba Corp. have generated 417-nm pulses using a GaN semiconductor laser powered at room temperature. The company's metallorganic chemical vapor deposition technique made the...
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US Air Force, Utah State University to Make Cheaper Satellite Communications
Developing a lightweight, inexpensive satellite laser communications system is the goal of an educational partnership agreement between the US Air Force's Phillips Laboratory and Utah State...
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Laser Welding Technology to Put Kewaunee Power Plant Back On-Line
KEWAUNEE, Wis. -- Throughout the nuclear power industry, steam generators have met their enemy, and its name is corrosion. Now, a new laser welding technology may prove to be the saving grace of...
Elizabeth M. Lockyer


LIGHT SPEED
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Laser Firm Gets University License for Marketing Al-Free Laser Diodes
EVANSTON, Ill. -- Northwestern University has granted an exclusive license to Semiconductor Laser International Corp. (SLI) of Endicott, N.Y., to develop, manufacture, market and sell aluminum-free...
Kathleen G. Tatterson
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Transatlantic Telecommunications System to Use Alcatel Fiber Optic Cables
UK-based Cable Co. International Ltd. has awarded a $400 million contract to Alcatel Submarine Networks of London, to supply fiber optic cable for what it calls the most advanced transatlantic fiber...
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Ball Aerospace Signs Navy Camera Contract Under Commercial Conditions
The US Navy - Naval Inventory Control Point in Mechanicsburg, Pa., has signed Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. of Broomfield, Colo., to a multiyear agreement to build about 165 marine...
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Centronic to Supply Silicon Photodiodes for Space Station
In an agreement worth $500,000, NASA will purchase hundreds of custom silicon photodiodes from Centronic Inc. of Newbury Park, Calif., for use on the Space Station Freedom, which is set for launch in...
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Fiber, Fiber, Who's Got the Fiber? Shortage Hits Builders, Producers
PITTSFIELD, Mass. -- A funny thing has happened on the way to the information superhighway: The road builders can't keep ahead of the drivers. Fiber optics fueled the dream, but now a shortage of...
Charles T. Troy
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US and Korean Groups Sign Cooperative Flat-Panel Display Pact
SAN JOSE, Calif. -- In a effort to boost global cooperation on standards and manufacturing procedures in the flat-panel display market, the US Display Consortium (USDC) and the Electronic Display...
Charles T. Troy
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Molecular OptoElectronics Wins NSF Grant, Licensing Agreement
Los Alamos National Laboratory has granted an exclusive licensing agreement to Molecular OptoElectronics Corp. of Watervliet, N.Y., to develop, manufacture and market the laboratory's electro-optic...
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Lockheed Wins $20 Million Photonic Sensor Pact
The US Air Force has awarded a $20.2 million contract to Lockheed Martin Tactical Systems for the development of its podded electro-optical sensor system. Under the contract, the company will design,...
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Dense WDM Market Seen Topping $12-Billion Mark by 2005
SAN MATEO, Calif. -- From an "introductory" level of $101 million last year, the global market for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) components is expected to hit $4.17 billion by 2000...
Charles T. Troy
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Zygo Acquires Canada's NexStar Automation in Stock Swap
Zygo Corp. of Middlefield, Conn., acquired all outstanding shares of Canada-based NexStar Automation Inc. in exchange for 250,000 shares of Zygo's common stock. The transaction was structured as a...


ACCENT ON APPLICATIONS
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Holographic Interferometry Helps Make Beautiful Music
This is the time of year when one hears the pealing of holiday bells. We take the sounds for granted, but how do bell makers know that their musical instruments are producing the best possible sound? One manufacturer teamed up with Northern Illinois University to measure its handbells using holographic interferometry. When Malmark Inc. of Plumsteadville, Pa., started making its large bells...
Kathleen G. Tatterson
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A Rose Is a Rose, Is a Rose ...
Or a blue, a purple or a yellow. Art directors and designers of brochures, advertisements and other printed material usually are very specific about which color they want for their art. If it has to...
Mary E. Fitzgerald
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Virtual Reality Goes to College
The business of educating students at all levels of learning is growing more complicated as the world grows more complex. Today's students learn not only with traditional lectures and reading...
Ruth A. Mendonsa


PRESSTIME BULLETIN
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Researchers Count on Buckyballs to Create Tiny 'Abacus' for Processing
Scientists at IBM Zurich in Switzerland have used a scanning tunneling microscope probe to reposition C-60 molecules, or "buckyballs," on a copper substrate, producing a room-temperature device that...
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Boeing Wins $1.1 Billion Contract to Build Laser-Armed Warplane
The US Air Force awarded a $1.1 billion contract to Boeing Defense Space Group to manufacture a prototype laser-armed warplane that would target enemy ballistic missiles. The plane, a modified 747...
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Candela Medical Laser Systems Approved for Use in Japan
Japan's Ministry of Health has approved two laser systems developed by Candela Corp. of Wayland, Mass., for the treatment of skin lesions. The devices, the AlexLAZR and the PLTL Pigmented...
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Pentagon Awards Missile Defense Radar Contract to Lockheed Martin
After a two-year bidding process, Lockheed Martin's Missile and Space Corp. in Sunnyvale, Calif., has won a $1.8 billion contract from the Pentagon to build a satellite system that warns against...
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SDL Introduces Solid-State Blue Laser for Printing, Biosensing Applications
SDL Inc. of San Jose, Calif., unveiled a new solid-state blue laser during the Photonics East conference and exhibition in Boston last month. According to published specifications, the 450-nm...
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SpecTran Plans Expanded Facility for Optics Subsidiary
SpecTran Corp. of Sturbridge, Mass., plans to increase its capacity to manufacture optical fibers, cable and related products at its Avon, Conn.-based subsidiary, SpecTran Specialty Optics Co. The $9...

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