The model 8310-V closed-loop vacuum-compatible (to 1026 t) picomotor actuator, launched by New Focus Inc., has an integrated rotary encoder as well as home, forward and reverse limit switches. It features <30-nm resolution, >5 lb of force and ±1-µm bidirectional repeatability over the 12.7-mm travel range. Lifetime is 15,000 cycles. The actuator comes with short Teflon-coated leads to connect to the vacuum chamber feedthrough. For high-radiation applications, a custom version with Kapton-coated wires is available.