The S9736 series full-frame-transfer CCDs manufactured by Hamamatsu Corp. can detect low levels of light and are suitable for use in scientific measuring instruments, fluorescence spectrometers, Raman spectrophotometers, and optical and spectrophotometric analyzers. With a 512 × 512-pixel format and a pixel size of 24 × 24 µm, the instruments achieve a 100% fill factor. Dark current is typically 10 e2/pixel/s at 0 °C, and typical readout noise is 4 e2 rms, resulting in long integration times and a dynamic range of 75,000. The series operates from 400 to 1100 nm and achieves quantum efficiency of 39% at 660 nm. A four-stage TE-cooled element is built into the housing so the sensors can be cooled down to −70 °C, using forced-air cooling.