Available from Filmetrics is its F80 line of stand-alone and integrated thin-film metrology tools. Based on thickness-imaging technology, which generates thousands of thickness readings at each measurement pad location and which enables a thickness-based approach to pattern recognition, the tools are immune to image contrast inversion problems. The result is an improvement in reliability and a decrease in the number of recipes required. Measurement pad locations can be determined with software, rather than with the high-precision stages used in conventional metrology tools. Options include 1- and 2-D high-resolution thickness mapping.