A modular electron detection unit manufactured by Hamamatsu Corp. features a patent-pending design that incorporates a typical 2.3-ns-decay phosphor and a compact, highly sensitive photomultiplier tube. This combination makes the H8770 suited for integration into semiconductor inspection systems and scanning electron microscopes and for use in mass spectrometry and general electron detection. The photomultiplier tube has a gain range of 1 × 102 to 1 × 106. The system's detectable input electron energy ranges from 5 to 12 keV, and typical noise level is 20 mv. Operating temperature is from 5 to 45 °C.