M.A.P.S. modular power supplies from Kurt J. Lesker Co. are used for heating and evaporation in a vacuum environment. Model HTR is for substrate heating with quartz lamps or with custom elements such as graphite, and for bakeout heaters. Model EVP is for thermal evaporation applications, including boats, crucibles and filaments. Model HTE, for high-temperature evaporation, is typically used with a furnace-style source for materials that require higher melting temperatures. Model LTE is for low-temperature evaporation. All can be configured with output powers of up to 8 kW and are available with computer-driven and manual switching networks.