Hot and cold stages for upright and inverted microscopes have been unveiled by Klughammer Industrie GmbH. The turnkey KL HS and KL HCS stages enable direct observation of materials samples during heating and cooling phases. A CCD camera can be connected, enabling viewing of single images or an image sequence on a computer monitor. The captured images show the actual temperature as well as the date and other information. The devices are used for direct observation of the melting and recrystallization behavior of materials in semiconductor and metallurgical investigations, and for chemical applications such as polymerization. Several models are available, with temperatures ranging from –190 to 700 °C. Sample areas vary from 20 × 20 mm to 139 × 147 mm. The stages can be controlled by a stand-alone controller or by a computer-connected one.