Available from Hamamatsu Corp., the ImagEM Enhanced back-thinned electron multiplier (EM) CCD camera provides a readout of 32 fps at full spatial resolution and 16-bit digitization. It features maximum quantum efficiency over 90% and cooling performance down to –90 °C to minimize noise. The C9100-13 includes two selectable readout modes for applications such as real-time imaging of low-light fluorescence and ultralow-light luminescence detection. It incorporates features such as electron multiplier gain protection and readjustment, and direct electron multiplier gain control for improved operational stability and functionality, particularly for high-gain imaging in live-cell fluorescence. Real-time image processing functions include frame averaging and a spot noise reducer. Applications include the observation of intercellular proteins, intercellular ion measurement and real-time spinning-disk confocal microscopy.