The VK-X series 3-D laser scanning microscopes from Keyence Corp. of America combine the capabilities of scanning electron microscopes and noncontact roughness gauges with the simplicity of an optical microscope. The systems deliver 0.5-nm Z-axis resolution with a magnification range from 200x to 24,000x. Ease of use has been improved with the addition of the AI-Scan function, allowing users to image and measure a target with a click of the mouse. With high-resolution color imaging and nanometer-level profile measurement functions, the microscopes have been designed to overcome the inadequacies of conventional imaging and profiling technologies. A short-wavelength laser scans across a target to provide noncontact profile, roughness and thickness measurements, even on targets with highly angular surfaces.