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  • Snell's law of refraction

The incident ray, the normal to the refracting surface at the point of incidence of the ray at the surface, and the refracted ray all lie in a single plane. The ratio of the sine of the angle between the normal and the incident ray to the sine of the angle between the normal and refracted ray is a constant. If the indices of refraction on either side of a refracting surface are N and N', and the angles that a ray makes with the surface normal are i and r, then Snell's law states that N sin i = N' sin r.
Snell's law of refraction

Presented by Dr. Will Williams, Smith College

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