The series of processes used to identify and evaluate crystal structure by using crystalline solids to diffract x-rays. In the Laue method, radiation of a wide range of wavelengths is transmitted by an immobile crystal and the diffracted beams are captured as spots on a photographic plate. In other techniques, a monochromatic beam is incident on a crystal so rotated as to position the different atomic planes. The reflection is calculated by the ionization it produces or it is calculated on a photographic plate. In the Debye-Scherrer-Hull method, a beam incident to a powdered sample produces a characteristic ring pattern photograph, useful in the calculation of lattice parameters.