The Deutsche Forschungsgemein-schaft (German Research Society) has invested in 14 new collaborative research centers, which will focus on biology and medicine, natural sciences, engineering and humanities/social sciences. These research centers provide a unique opportunity for scientists to cooperate with nonuniversity research institutions and with industry. They have a limited term of about 12 years. --> As part of the program, the German group has established two transfer centers where industrial users and university researchers can jointly develop prototypes and engage in research projects. Private industry will benefit from the transfer of scientific innovations, while paying only for costs it incurs.