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Black Holes Make Light Echo
Jan 2008
GREENBELT, Md., Jan. 11, 2008 -- It’s well known by astrophysicists that black holes can slow time to a crawl and tidally stretch large objects into spaghetti-like strands. But according to new theoretical research, the wrenching gravity just outside the outer boundary of a black hole can produce yet another bizarre effect: light echoes.

"The light echoes come about because of the severe warping of spacetime predicted by Einstein," said Keigo Fukumura, an astrophysicist with NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "If the black hole is spinning fast, it can literally drag the surrounding space, and this can produce some wild special effects."
This artist's rendition shows an accretion disk swirling around a black hole. The two hot spots could give off powerful x-ray flares. (Image: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital)
Fukumura and his NASA Goddard colleague, astrophysicist Demosthenes Kazanas, are presenting their research Wednesday in a poster session at the American Astronomical Society’s 2008 winter meeting in Austin, Texas. They will also discuss their results in a press conference scheduled for 2 p.m. CST Thursday.

Many black holes are surrounded by disks of searing hot gas that whirl around at nearly the speed of light. Hot spots within these disks sometimes emit random bursts of x-rays, which have been detected by orbiting x-ray observatories. But according to Fukumura and Kazanas, things get more interesting when they take into account Einstein’s general theory of relativity, which describes how extremely massive objects like black holes can actually warp and drag the surrounding space-time.

Many of these x-ray photons travel to Earth by taking different paths around the black hole. Because the black hole’s extreme gravity warps the surrounding spacetime, it bends the trajectories of the photons so they arrive here with a delay that depends on the relative positions of the x-ray flare, the black hole, and Earth.

But if the black hole rotates very fast, then according to Fukumura and Kazanas’ calculations, the delay between the photons is constant, independent of the source’s position. They discovered that for rapidly spinning black holes, about 75 percent of the x-ray photons arrive at the observer after completing a fraction of one orbit around the black hole, while the remaining photons travel the exact same fraction plus one or more full orbits.

"For each x-ray burst from a hot spot, the observer will receive two or more flashes separated by a constant interval, so even a signal made up from a totally random collection of bursts from hot spots at different positions will contain an echo of itself," Kazanas said.

Though difficult to discern in the raw data, astronomers can use a Fourier analysis, or other statistical methods, to pick up these hidden echoes. Among other things, a Fourier analysis is a mathematical tool for extracting periodic behavior in a signal that might otherwise seem totally random. The echoes would appear as quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). An example of a QPO with a period of 10 seconds might exhibit peaks at 9, 21, 30, 39, 51, and 61 seconds.

If one considers a 10-solar-mass black hole that formed from a dying star, and if the black hole is spinning more than 95 percent of its maximum possible speed, the period of its QPOs would be about 0.7 milliseconds, corresponding to about 1400 peaks per second, which is three times higher than any QPOs that have been detected around black holes. NASA’s Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellite could measure such high-frequency QPOs, but the signal would have to be very strong.

Detecting these high-frequency QPOs would do more than just confirm another prediction of Einstein’s theory. It would also provide a gold mine of information about the black hole itself. The frequency of the QPOs depends on the black hole’s mass, so detecting this echo effect would give astronomers an accurate way to measure the masses of black holes. In addition, Kazanas said, "This echoes occur only if a black hole is spinning near its maximum possible speed, so it would tell astronomers that the black hole is spinning really fast."

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black hole
A hypothetical cosmic phenomenon in which the mass and density of a star pass a critical point so that the escape velocity matches the speed of light. For this reason, light and matter are "captured'' by the black hole and cannot escape.
A unit of energy equal to the amount of energy absorbed by one molecule of material undergoing a photochemical reaction, as determined by the Stark-Einstein law.
fourier analysis
The representation of arbitrary functions as the superposition of sinusoidal functions whereby the representations themselves are referred to as Fourier series or Fourier integers.
A quantum of electromagnetic energy of a single mode; i.e., a single wavelength, direction and polarization. As a unit of energy, each photon equals hn, h being Planck's constant and n, the frequency of the propagating electromagnetic wave. The momentum of the photon in the direction of propagation is hn/c, c being the speed of light.
The technology of generating and harnessing light and other forms of radiant energy whose quantum unit is the photon. The science includes light emission, transmission, deflection, amplification and detection by optical components and instruments, lasers and other light sources, fiber optics, electro-optical instrumentation, related hardware and electronics, and sophisticated systems. The range of applications of photonics extends from energy generation to detection to communications and...
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