Semiconductor manufacturers should focus on the commercialization of extreme-ultraviolet and electron-projection lithographic techniques, recommended lithographers at the Next Generation Lithography Workshop, which was sponsored by International Sematech of Austin, Texas. The Sept. 25 event also considered x-ray and ion-beam-projection techniques as possible ways to produce smaller feature sizes on semiconductor chips. The attendees voted extreme-ultraviolet and electron-projection lithography as the most promising approaches for 50-nm feature sizes. Extreme-UV was the technique of choice for 35-nm features. Both face impediments to their implementation. Electron projection has problems with the blending and stitching of seams and with undesired heating effects on the wafers. Extreme-UV introduces optics reliability issues and high cost.