Search Menu
Photonics Media Photonics Marketplace Photonics Spectra BioPhotonics EuroPhotonics Vision Spectra Photonics Showcase Photonics ProdSpec Photonics Handbook

EMCCD camera redraws the boundaries of superresolution 3-D imaging

Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email Comments
Charles T. Troy, [email protected]

Researchers in the US have developed a superresolution 3-D imaging technique that resolves single fluorescent molecules with >10 times the precision of conventional optical microscopy. Using an iXon+ electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) camera from Andor Technology plc, they can locate molecules to within 12 to 20 nm in all three axes and hope to be able to observe interactions between nanometer-scale intracellular structures previously too small to see.

Combining the concepts of superresolution imaging by sparse photoactivation of single-molecule labels, three-dimensional stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and fluorescence photo-activation localization microscopy (F-PALM) together with a double-helix point spread function (DH-PSF) to provide accurate Z-position information resulted in the 3-D superresolution imaging.

Associate Professor Rafael Piestun of the University of Colorado at Boulder and his students developed a point spread function with two rotating lobes, where the angle of rotation depends on the axial position of the emitting molecule. This means that the PSF appears as a double helix along the Z-axis of the microscope, lending it the distinctive name of “Double Helix PSF.”

Gaining dimension

Professor William E. Moerner at Stanford University in California and his team realized that the DH-PSF could be used for superresolution imaging with single molecules. With the DH-PSF, a single-emitting fluorescent molecule emits a pattern corresponding to a standard PSF, but the image this creates is convolved with the DH-PSF using Fourier optics and a reflective mask outside the microscope. At the detector, the image from a single molecule appears as two spots, rather than one. The orientation of the pair can be used to decode the Z-location of a molecule, which, combined with the 2-D localization data, enables the 3-D position to be accurately defined.

Furthermore, the DH-PSF approach has been shown to extend the depth of field to ~2 μm in the specimen, approximately twice that achieved with other 3-D superresolution techniques.

Commenting on the role played by the iXon+ camera in this breakthrough, Moerner said, “As the localization precision of our superresolution technique improves at a rate of one over the square root of the number of photons detected, it was essential to use a camera that allowed us to detect every possible photon from each single molecule. Put simply, the more photons we detected, the greater the X, Y and Z precision. However, the speed of imaging is also important. Since we need to acquire multiple images for each reconstruction, it is always best to record the images as fast as possible.”


The DH-PSF’s usefulness was validated recently in a 3-D localization experiment involving imaging of a single molecule of the new fluorogen, DCDHF-V-PF4 azide. This photoactivatable molecule was chosen because it is easily excited and emits a large number of photons before photobleaching takes effect. By operating the EMCCD camera at a constant electron multiplying gain setting of x250 to eliminate the read noise detection limit, it was possible to acquire many images of the single photoactivated molecule. From these images, the X-Y-Z position of the fluorophore could be determined with 12- to 20-nm precision, depending upon the dimension of interest.

Moerner and his team have called this new technique single-molecule double-helix photoactivated localization microscopy (DH-PALM) and are confident that it will provide far more useful information than is the case for other approaches to extracting 3-D positional information.

“We expect that the DH-PSF optics will become a regular attachment on advanced microscopes, either for superresolution 3-D imaging of structures or for 3-D superresolution tracking of individually labeled biomolecules in cells or other environments,” he said.

Aug 2010
Material that emits fluorescence.
An instrument consisting essentially of a tube 160 mm long, with an objective lens at the distant end and an eyepiece at the near end. The objective forms a real aerial image of the object in the focal plane of the eyepiece where it is observed by the eye. The overall magnifying power is equal to the linear magnification of the objective multiplied by the magnifying power of the eyepiece. The eyepiece can be replaced by a film to photograph the primary image, or a positive or negative relay...
A quantum of electromagnetic energy of a single mode; i.e., a single wavelength, direction and polarization. As a unit of energy, each photon equals hn, h being Planck's constant and n, the frequency of the propagating electromagnetic wave. The momentum of the photon in the direction of propagation is hn/c, c being the speed of light.
3-D imagingAndor Technology plcaxial positioncamerasCCDCharles T. TroyDCDHF-V-PF4 azideDH-PSFdouble-helix point spread functionelectron-multiplying CCDEMCCDEuro NewsEuropef-PALMfluorescence photoactivation localization microscopyfluorogenfluorophoreFourier opticsimagingiXon+microscopeMicroscopymoleculeNewsopticsphotoactivatable moleculephotonPSFRafael Piestunreflective maskSensors & DetectorsspecimenStanford Universitystochastic optical reconstruction microscopySTORMsuperresolutionsuperresolution 3-D imagingsuperresolution imagingthree-dimensionalUKUniversity of ColoradoWilliam MoernerZ-position

back to top
Facebook Twitter Instagram LinkedIn YouTube RSS
©2020 Photonics Media, 100 West St., Pittsfield, MA, 01201 USA, [email protected]

Photonics Media, Laurin Publishing
x Subscribe to EuroPhotonics magazine - FREE!
We use cookies to improve user experience and analyze our website traffic as stated in our Privacy Policy. By using this website, you agree to the use of cookies unless you have disabled them.