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The Eyes Behind Surgical Robots

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Surgical robots perform increasingly delicate, minimally invasive surgeries — guided by OCT and other optical imaging techniques.

JOEL WILLIAMS, ASSOCIATE EDITOR

The first robotic surgery took place in 1985 when the PUMA 560 was used in a stereotaxic operation in which computed tomography (or x-ray) was used intraoperatively to guide a robot as it inserted a needle into the brain for biopsy. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, robotic systems began to be used for laparoscopic surgery, in which a flexible optical instrument was inserted into the body and used to guide surgeons through hard-to-reach areas, from the pelvis to the chest cavity. By the turn of the century, Intuitive Surgical Inc.’s da Vinci surgical system, which was approved by...Read full article

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