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Wafer-thin Germanium

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SALT LAKE CITY, Sept. 15, 2008 – By reducing the waste and breakage of the brittle germanium-based semiconductor, University of Utah engineers say they can lower the cost of solar power.

According to the group the new method, known as wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), slices thin wafers of the chemical element germanium, which they say will help produce more efficient, less expensive solar cells.

“The idea is to make germanium-based, high-efficiency solar cells for uses where cost now is a factor,” says Eberhard Bamberg, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering.

Dinesh Rakwal, a doctoral student in mechanical engineering adds, "We're coming up with a more efficient way of making germanium wafers for solar cells – to reduce the cost and weight of these solar cells and make them defect-free."Utah-Engineers.jpg

University of Utah mechanical engineers Dinesh Rakwal and Eberhard Bamberg watch as an electrified molybdenum wire cuts a thin wafer of germanium semiconductor, which is used in a solar power cells. Their new cutting technique promises to reduce the cost of the most efficient type of solar power cell. Photo courtesy of Sumet Heamawatanachai, University of Utah.

Brass-coated, steel-wire saws are currently used to slice round wafers of germanium from cylindrical single-crystal ingots, but the brittle chemical element cracks easily, which requires the broken pieces to be recycled. The width of the saws means a significant amount of germanium is lost during the cutting process because the sawing method was originally developed for silicon wafers, which are roughly 100 times stronger.

The new method, which uses an extremely thin molybdenum wire with an electrical current running through it, wastes less germanium and produces more wafers by cutting even thinner wafers with less waste and cracking. It has been used previously for machining metals during tool-making.
Germanium serves as the bottom layer of the most efficient existing type of solar cell, but is used primarily on NASA, military and commercial satellites because of the high expense. Raw germanium, for example, costs about $680 per pound. Four-inch-wide wafers used in solar cells cost $80 to $100 each, and the new cutting method may reduce the cost by more than 10 percent, according to Grant Fines, chief technology officer for germanium wafer-maker Sylarus Technologies in St. George, Utah.

"Anything that can be done to lower this cost ultimately will lower the cost of solar power per kilowatt-hour, which is beneficial," adds Fines. "That's why this technology Ebbe has come up with is very intriguing."

Fines added that Sylarus is considering using the new method, but must determine if it can be scaled up so wafers can be mass-produced in a commercially viable manner.

"[Bamberg’s method would] reduce the amount we have to recycle and increase the yield," he said. "It has the potential to give good savings, which helps enable this technology here on Earth."

Silicon-based solar cells on Earth have maximum efficiency of 20 percent, Fines says. In space, germanium solar cells typically convert 28 percent of sunlight into electricity, but on Earth where solar concentrators are used, they can convert more than 40 percent of sunlight into electricity, and their efficiency theoretically exceeds 50 percent, he adds.

Despite the greater efficiency of germanium-based solar cells, a 2005 survey found that 94 percent of solar cells made for non-space uses were silicon-based because silicon is much cheaper and less fragile than germanium, the Utah researchers say.


A wafer of the element germanium, a semiconductor that is used as the bottom layer of highly efficient solar power cells. The engineers have devised a new way of cutting the wafers so that less of the expensive material is wasted during the cutting process. The method may reduce the cost of germanium-based solar cells and make them more economical to use on Earth. Photo courtesy of Eberhard Bamberg, University of Utah.

Bamberg says germanium-based solar cells are used on most spacecraft because they are more efficient and lighter than silicon-based solar cells. By making it more attractive economically to use efficient germanium solar cells on rooftops, the weight and size of solar panels can be reduced "so it doesn't bother you aesthetically," he adds.

The new method may make germanium-based solar cells competitive with less efficient but less expensive silicon-based solar cells for uses on Earth, says Bamberg.

In the new method, the molybdenum wire essentially is an electrode, and it is connected to a pulsed power supply that charges the wire during the cutting process.

A cylinder-shaped germanium ingot rests on a horizontal support, and the wire is lowered into the ingot as new wire is pulled continually from a supply spool to replace the cutting wire as it wears. Thin, synthetic oil is injected along the wire, both to increase the electrical charge on the wire and to flush away material that melts during the cutting process.

However, the process is slow. Wire electrical discharge machining takes 14 hours to cut a single wafer. Bamberg says the electrified wire method has to be done gently to avoid cracking the germanium, but he hopes to increase the speed to the six hours it now takes to cut a wafer using a wire saw.

Wire saws made of brass-coated steel have a thickness of about 170 or 180 microns (millionths of a meter). The Utah researchers used molybdenum wire 75 to 100 microns thick, a bit thicker than a human hair. Less germanium is wasted during the slicing process because the electrified cutting wire is thinner.

"At the current standard wafer thickness of 300 microns, you can produce up to 30 percent more wafers using our method with a 75-micron-wide wire,” said

Bamberg. "Since we produce them crack free, we can also make them thinner than standard techniques. So if you go down to a 100-micron-thick wafer, you can make up to 57 percent more wafers [from the same germanium ingot]. That's a huge number."

The new study found that the "kerf,” which is the amount of germanium wasted during the slicing process, was 22 percent less when a 75-micron diameter electrified wire was used to cut the wafers. The researchers cut 2.6-inch-diameter wafers with a thickness of 350 microns. The study also showed less germanium was wasted not only using the smaller wire size, but also if the charge on the electrified wire was lower.

A patent is pending on a way of using the new method so that multiple, parallel electrically charged wires are used to cut germanium wafers, a mass-production method Bamberg compares with an egg slicer.

This study was funded by the National Science Foundation, University of Utah Research Foundation and Sylarus Technologies.

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Sep 2008
The technology of generating and harnessing light and other forms of radiant energy whose quantum unit is the photon. The science includes light emission, transmission, deflection, amplification and detection by optical components and instruments, lasers and other light sources, fiber optics, electro-optical instrumentation, related hardware and electronics, and sophisticated systems. The range of applications of photonics extends from energy generation to detection to communications and...
Bamberg’s methodBasic Sciencecylinder-shaped germanium ingotdefenseDinesh RakwalEberhard Bambergenergygermanium ingotGermanium-based semiconductorGrant Finesgreen photonicsindustrialLow-cost solar powermolybdenum wireNASANational Science FoundationNews & FeaturesphotonicsRaw germaniumsilicon-based solar cellssolar powerSylarus TechnologiesUniversity of UtahUtah Research FoundationWEDMwire electrical discharge machining

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