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Definitions: C

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C-mount
A standard lens interface initially made for 16mm movie cameras and now used primarily on closed-circuit television cameras. It is a 1-in.-diameter, 32-thread-per-inch interface with a...
cable -> fiber optic cable
A package for an optical fiber or fibers that may include cladding, buffering, strength members and an outer jacket.
cache
A portion of computer memory that is used for temporary storage of frequently accessed data. Substantially increases computer speed.
cadmium lamp
A mercury vapor discharge lamp that has cadmium added to emit radiation in the red region as a complement to the mercury vapor's blue and green radiation.
cadmium lines
The three lines in the spectrum of cadmium that have the purest radiations and that were first used by Michelson to calculate the standard meter.
cadmium red line
The narrowest line of the cadmium spectrum; the red line has the purest radiation.
cadmium sulfide
An inorganic compound, yellow to orange in color, that fluoresces strongly enough when bombarded by a high-current-density electron beam to be used as a high-intensity light source.
cadmium sulfide cell
A photoconductive cell having cadmium sulfide as its photoconducting material for the production of a very high dark-light resistance ratio.
calcite
A doubly refracting mineral used to produce polarizing prisms. It is uniaxial negative and in the trigonal division of the hexagonal system of crystals. Its indices are e = 1.486, w = 1.658; its...
calcite interference microscope
A microscope that allows examination of a small crystal and conveniently provides linearly polarized object and reference beams so that, by suitable orientation of an anisotropic crystal, the optical...
calcium fluoride
An optical material used in place of crown glass to produce lenses with extraordinary correction of chromatic aberrations. Its high coefficient of thermal expansion and its tendency to absorb...
calcium indicator
A calcium indicator is a molecule that is sensitive to changes in calcium ion (Ca2+) concentrations in biological systems. These indicators are commonly used in various fields, including cell...
calcium iodide
A hygroscopic powder used in the photographic process.
calcium tungstate
White, tetragonal crystals used in the production of luminous coatings.
calibrated light source
A lamp whose output can be traced to a standard light source.
calibrated wedge
An optical wedge in which transmittance or density is a function of the location of the wedge, relative to a specific optical system.
calibration reference
Any known value derived from standard analysis that serves as a reference to the accuracy of an instrument or process in determining one or more variables.
Callier coefficient
The coefficient termed by Callier as the ratio between the density of photographic negatives measured by parallel light and that measured by diffuse light, due to scattering effects. This effect is...
Callier effect
The selective scattering of light as it passes through a diffusing medium.
calligraphic imager -> stroke pattern
The pattern formed by a character generation cathode-ray tube system, in which the characters are composed of a sequence of line segments (strokes) generated by the electron beam motion with time...
calorescence
The production of visible light by infrared radiation whereby the light is produced by heat and not by any direct change in wavelength; the transformation is indirect.
calorific rays
Name originally given to the sun's infrared radiation by Sir William Herschel in his Philosophical Transactions of 1800.
calorimeter
An instrument used to measure the change of heat content of a system by measuring microwave power in terms of generated heat.
calorimetry
Calorimetry is a branch of science that involves the measurement of heat flow in physical or chemical processes. It encompasses various techniques and instruments used to quantify heat transfer,...
calutron
An electromagnetic device used to separate isotopes of elements based on their respective masses.
camera chain
The term sometimes used to describe the sequential arrangement of components in a video system -- from transmitter to receiver.
Camera Link HS
Camera Link HS (high speed) is a standard developed for high-speed digital data transmission in machine vision and industrial imaging applications. It is an evolution of the original Camera Link...
camera lucida
A portable instrument that uses a four-sided reflecting prism or set of mirrors to create a duplicate image of an object on a horizontal sheet, on which outlines of the subject may be traced by hand.
camera memory
Primary image memory that is built into a digital camera and stores the digital images generated by the camera's image sensor. figure
camera obscura
A forerunner of the modern camera, this instrument had a focusable lens that produced a sharp image on the enclosure opposite the aperture but had no photosensitive material to record it.
camera reduction
The use of the photographic process to produce precision copies of an original image that are many times smaller in size. One of its many applications is in microcircuitry.
camera shutter
An apparatus, designed for use with a camera, that is used to rapidly open the path from lens to film, to maintain the opening throughout exposure and to close the opening in rapid succession. The...
camera tube
The electron beam tube of a television camera that converts an optical image into a pattern of electrostatic charges and then scans the pattern to produce a corresponding electronic signal for...
camera tube target
The storage surface of an electron beam tube that is scanned by an electron beam to generate an output-signal current corresponding to the charge-density pattern stored.
camera
A light-tight box that receives light from an object or scene and focuses it to form an image on a light-sensitive material or a detector. The camera generally contains a lens of variable aperture...
campimeter -> eye test apparatus
Instruments used by ophthalmologists and optometrists to study the eye. There are, for instance, the ophthalmoscope to observe and photograph the retina; the retinoscope and optometer to determine...
campimetry -> perimetry
The analysis of retinal zones in which different hues can be detected. Also called campimetry.
Canada balsam
A resin obtained from the balsam fir, Abies balsamea, used as a lens cement.
candela
SI unit of luminous intensity. It is defined as one sixtieth the normal intensity of one square centimeter of a blackbody at the solidification temperature of platinum. A point source of one candela...
candlepower
The luminous intensity of a source of light expressed in candelas.
candoluminescence
The luminescence of an incandescent material.
cantilever
A projecting beam or other structure supported only at one end.
capacitance
The ability of a conductor to store an electrical charge; its value is given in farads as the ratio of the stored charge on one conductor to the potential difference between it and a second conductor.
capacitor
A device that accumulates and stores electrical energy to introduce capacitance into a circuit. Basically, it is composed of two electrical conductors, separated by an insulating medium.
capnometer
An instrument incorporating an infrared detector assembly, used to analyze carbon dioxide gases and in medical applications to monitor air exchange in the lungs of patients on ventilators or under...
carbon arc
An electric discharge between two carbon rods that are touched together to start the arc and then separated slightly. The light comes from the heated carbon vapor. High-intensity arcs use cored...
carbon dioxide laser
A gas laser in which the energy-state transitions between vibrational and rotational states of CO2 molecules give emission at long IR, about 10 µm, wavelengths. The laser can maintain...
carbon film
In analysis, the carbon layer that is evaporation-deposited on a specimen to protect and ready it for study by electron microscopy.
carbonaceous
Consisting of, containing, pertaining to or yielding carbon.
carbonization
Carbonization is a process in which organic materials are heated in the absence of air, leading to the decomposition of the material and the production of carbon-rich residue. During carbonization,...

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