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Maksutov objective
A catadioptric lens assembly consisting of a Maksutov corrector and a spherical primary mirror.
Malus's law
A law that uses the square of the cosine between the plane of polarization of a beam of plane-polarized light and the plane of polarization of a polarizing element to calculate the intensity of the...
mandrel
A shaft, spindle or any object generally passed through a workpiece to hold, support or shape a particular piece during its machining process or its practical use. In fiber optics, optical fibers are...
mandrel wrap test
A means of testing optical fiber for macrobending losses by wrapping the fiber once at very low tension around a mandrel, and then measuring attenuation vs. wavelength.
Mangin mirror
A double-surfaced catadioptric spherical mirror whose spherical first surface consists of a negative meniscus (concave) lens and second rear surface is a spherical mirror. This combination utilizes...
manometer
A device used to measure the pressure of gases and vapors, without regard to atmospheric pressure.
Manufacturing Automation Protocol
A computerized token-passing local area network (LAN) configuration adopted by General Motors for real time control over the mediation of interconnected devices from multiple manufacturers over the...
mapping function
In image processing, the mathematical relationships that link pixel brightnesses of input images to those of output images in point processes. Mapping functions are commonly used to apply...
marcuse loss theory
A theoretical analysis of radiation loss from planar optical waveguides due to scattering by surface irregularities/surface roughness of the walls of the waveguide.
marginal error
The distortion in an ophthalmic lens resulting from the refraction of light rays entering the periphery of the lens surface. It increases relative to the power of the lens.
marginal rays
Also referred to as the axial ray (or a-ray), a marginal ray originates from the axial point of the object and passes through the edge or margin of the entrance pupil (or aperture stop) of the lens...
marhic method
Nondestructive measurement of the delta and alpha of clad optical fibers that involves interferometry with the fiber immersed in an index-matching oil and illuminated perpendicular to the fiber axis.
Martens wedge
A wedge-shaped piece of quartz typically found in a polarimeter to monitor and rotate the plane of polarization of plane polarized light. A Martens wedge can also be used in combination with other...
Martin's diameter
A specific method for measuring the diameter of irregular shaped particles, Martin's diameter is the measured distance between opposite sides of a particle, and is measured transverse to the particle...
Marx effect
The decrease in the energy of a photoelectric emission as a result of the simultaneous incidence of radiation having lower frequency than that forming the emission.
Marx generator
High-voltage, fast-discharge circuit named after its inventor, Erwin Marx. Its capacitors are charged in parallel and discharged in series. The voltage multiplication achieved with a Marx circuit is...
maser
An acronym for microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. Predecessor to the laser, the maser or 'microwave laser' was the first device to produce coherent electromagnetic waves,...
mask
1. A framelike structure that serves to restrict the viewing area of the screen when placed before a television picture tube. 2. In photolithography, a photomask (or mask) is typically a patterned...
mask proximity correction
A technique used in photolithography of computer chips to compensate for errors caused by the proximity effect, which results in variations in size between areas of the mask that have many small...
mask spectrometer
Instrument that uses absorption spectroscopy to detect gases in planetary atmospheres. Dispersed incoming radiation is transmitted to one or more sampling elements, or masks, before reaching the...
masking
In image processing, the assigning of certain portions (or pixels) of an image a constant value of either 0 (black) or 1 (white) as to restrict image processing operations to a specific set of pixels...
masks for evaporation/deposition
In the context of thin film deposition processes such as evaporation or sputtering, masks are used to selectively deposit material onto substrates, creating patterns or structures with precise...
mass relieving
The removal of material from an optical system to decrease the weight and sometimes the bulk of the system. See coring; egg-crating.
mass spectrograph
A device that uses electromagnetic fields to separate electrically charged particles according to their masses. As a beam of charged particles is passed through a mass spectrograph, the result is a...
mass spectrometer
A device used to measure the masses and relative concentrations of atoms and molecules. It utilizes the Lorentz force generated by external magnetic field on a moving charged particle, in which the...
mass spectrometry
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to determine the molecular composition and structure of compounds based on their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). It involves ionizing chemical...
mass spectroscope
An instrument that uses electromagnetic fields to sort out the relative masses of atoms and molecules.The same way an optical spectroscope uses a prism to separate light into its various wavelengths,...
mass spectrum
A spectrum that displays the distribution in mass or in mass-to-charge ratio of ionized atoms, molecules or molecular parts. Mass spectrums are typically recorded by instruments utilized in mass...
massive optics
Optical components exceeding 24 in. in diameter. The components are usually glass, acrylic or polystyrene and are used for virtual image systems in simulators and collimators.
master oscillation -> injection seeding
The use of a small ultrastable master oscillator (a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser) to achieve single-frequency operation of a large pulsed Nd:YAG host laser, providing improved bandwidth and temporal...
match
The condition of identity of visual appearance.
matched filter
A filter that maximizes signal-to-noise ratio so that a waveform of known shape can be separated from random noise.
matched transmission line
A transmission line having no wave reflection along its path.
material dispersion
The dispersion attributable to the wavelength dependence of the refractive index of the material used in any optical application.
material scattering
The total scattering attributable to the intrinsic properties of the materials through which an optical wave is propagating.
matrix
With respect to television, that part of a color television circuit that combines the I, Q and Y signals, and changes them into single red, green and blue signals applied to the picture-tube grids.
matrix array
Image sensors in a two-dimensional configuration of rows or columns.
Matrix optics
The linear relationship between input and output optical fields for a given optical system or application that allows the use of a matrix and matrix algebra to define an optical system, or series of...
matrix optics
matrix unit
An electrical or optical device used to convert color coordinates.
matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization
Process of analysis in which the analyte substance is distributed in a matrix before laser desorption. This method avoids the mass limitations associated with laser desorption and possibly enhances...
matrix-controlled display
A display that is formed in an X-Y manner; i.e., two inputs allow control of X2 elements.
matt
A term used to describe a nondirectionally diffusing surface that, when illuminated, appears equally bright from all angles. An example of this kind of surface is the screen used for the forward...
maximum luminous efficiency
The greatest luminosity possible for a specified chromaticity.
maximum luminous reflectance
The greatest luminous reflectance possible for a specified chromaticity.
maximum luminous transmittance
The greatest luminous transmittance possible for a specified chromaticity.
maximum permissable exposure
The maximum level of laser radiation that a person may be exposed to without adverse biological effects.
maximum saturation
The highest value of saturation possible for a specified hue.
Maxwell triangle
A diagram used to represent the trichromatic variables of the components in a three-color combination.
Maxwell's equations
The mathematical set of equations showing the relationship between oscillating electric and magnetic fields that are generated by an oscillating electric charge. Intrinsic to Maxwell's equations is...

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