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Definitions: M

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mount
See gimbal mount; kinematic mount; lens mount.
mounting cement
An adhesive used to hold optical components in their mounts. It may be a thermoplastic or chemical-hardening substance.
movement parallax
The visual phenomenon of the apparent difference in the rate of motion of two objects that are actually moving at the same velocity but that lie at different distances from the observer.
movement parallax threshold
The unequal angular velocities of two objects moving at equal speeds but at different distances from the observer, which are just noticeable.
moving aperture technique
Method for reducing laser speckle in which the object field comes from a real diffuse object or the reconstructed object field from a hologram. During recording of the image, an aperture is moved in...
MSM photodiode
A metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiode is a type of photodetector that consists of metal electrodes on a semiconductor material. Unlike the more common PIN photodiodes, which have a P-type and...
MTF curve -> modulation transfer function
Also called sine wave response and contrast transfer function. The modulation transfer function is the ratio of the modulation in the image to the modulation in the object as a function of frequency...
MTF optimization
Computerized lens design algorithm that permits the lens MTF characteristic to be included and controlled during the optimization process. MTF optimizations typically allow lens design users to...
multi-axis alignment
Multi-axis alignment refers to the process of aligning or adjusting components or systems in multiple spatial dimensions or axes. In various technical and engineering contexts, achieving precise...
multianode microchannel array detector
A photon-counting instrument for use in both space-borne and ground-based photometric and spectroscopic instrumentation. This style of detector is composed of opaque photocathodes for photon to...
multiband camera
A group of four cameras loaded with different combinations of filters and film (one is usually an infrared color film) to permit the recording of the same subject in four separate regions of the...
multichannel direct-reading spectrometer
An instrument that contains a spectrograph with a grating in which an array of slits, in place of a photographic plate, is arranged according to the lines of the sample to create an illustration of...
multichannel spectral analyzer
A spectrometric instrument that detects radiation simultaneously in multiple channels, sorts it spectrally from the deep ultraviolet to the infrared, digitizes the information and stores it for...
multicolor hologram
A hologram formed by reconstruction of multicolor wavefronts. The system used to produce the hologram is designed to combine the different colored wavefronts of the separate illuminating sources, and...
multiconfiguration mode
Used in computer design for optical systems with common parts and different applications.
multifiber cable
Fiber optic cable bearing many fibers independently sheathed and capable of carrying unrelated signals. They often surround a central strength member, and can be either loose- or tight-buffered. One...
multifiber joint
A fiber optic connector or splice that mates two multifiber cables, optically aligning all of the individual fibers simultaneously.
multifibers
An array of optically distinct fibers that are fused into one strand. They are used to keep the resolution efficiency of the smaller, single fibers and eliminate difficulty in handling. Their...
multifocal lens
A lens with internally adjustable elements to produce a range of focal lengths. Unlike a true zoom lens, a multifocal lens must be refocused each time the focal length is changed. See variable-focus...
multihaul transceiver
A multihaul transceiver is an optical transceiver module designed to support multiple network architectures or transmission technologies within a single compact device. It offers versatility and...
multijunction device
A photovoltaic device that consists of multiple p-n junctions to produce a greater efficiency when in use than that of traditional single junction devices. A multijunction device is unique because...
multilayer coating
A coating made up of many layers of material having alternating high and low refractive index. In this way, it is possible to produce coatings with a great variety of properties. These may be...
multileg lightguide
A fiber optic bundle split along its length with the ends of the fibers extending separately to illuminate different points with a single light source.
multiline
Describing a laser that emits simultaneously at more than one wavelength.
multiline laser system
A multiline laser system refers to a type of laser that is capable of emitting multiple discrete wavelengths or spectral lines simultaneously. Unlike single-line lasers, which produce radiation at a...
multimeter -> optical multimeter
An instrument that measures several optical parameters, such as optical power and wavelength, with a single measurement input.
multimodal vision-language models
Multimodal vision-language models (MVLMs) are advanced AI systems designed to understand and process information that combines both visual and textual data. These models are capable of interpreting...
multimodality imaging
A technique that combines two or more imaging processes in order to minimize the disadvantages within each of the contributing processes. In medical applications, combining multiple modalities...
multimode distortion
In an optical waveguide,- typically a multimode fiber - the distortion resulting from differential mode delay, i.e. axial rays (modes), with the shortest path length, will have the shortest...
multimode fiber -> multimode optical waveguide
An optical waveguide that will allow more than one bound mode to propagate.
multimode group delay -> differential mode delay
Differential mode delay (DMD) is a parameter used to characterize the propagation characteristics of optical fibers, particularly in multimode fiber optic systems. It refers to the difference in...
multimode laser
A laser that produces emission in two or more transverse or longitudinal modes.
multimode optical waveguide
An optical waveguide that will allow more than one bound mode to propagate.
multiphase pinned operation
A method of reducing dark current in charge-coupled devices by holding all the clocks at negative voltage during the integration period.
multiphoton process
A process involving the interaction (absorption, emission or both) of two or more photons with a molecular entity.
multiple instruction/multiple data
A computer architecture used in parallel processing whereby all the processing elements are operating under their own local control rather than under the direction of a central control unit.
multiple invariance
Characteristic of optical correlators in which invariance to more than one distortion parameter per axis of the processor is obtainable.
multiple laser sequence
Also known as gatling gun laser. A system that has an array of lasers sharing a common central axis on a rotating Fabry plate to achieve increased laser firing rates by sequential Q-switching.
multiple lens block
A block that can hold more than one lens or blank.
multiple lens camera
A camera that uses a rotating mirror to project sequential images onto lenses that are arranged in an arc. The reflected images can then be recorded on stationary film. By using an 8-mm frame format,...
multiple slits
The series of equally spaced parallel slits that make up a scanning aperture in place of a single slit, in the scanning of a repetitive pattern.
multiple wavelength interferometry
A specific form of phase shifting interferometry - commonly referred to as multiple wavelength phase shifting interferometry - this form of interferometry utilizes two short wavelengths to synthesize...
multiple-beam laser
A laser having a Q-switching method that allows separate parallel volumes of the lasing material to act independently of each other and produce several separate beams. It is useful in high-speed...
multiplet
A group of related lines that represent transitions between two spectroscopic terms, each of which may be complex. Also in physics, a multiplet is recognized as a group of related subatomic particles.
multiplex advantage -> Felgett advantage
The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained with a Fourier transform spectrometer when detector noise prevails, which exceeds the SNR of a scanning spectrometer in the same time by a factor proportional...
multiplex spectrometry
The recording and mathematical analysis of all spectral intervals of the spectrometer simultaneously.
multiplexing
The combination of two or more signals for transmission along a single wire, path or carrier. In most optical communication systems this is referred to as wavelength division multiplexing, in which...
multispectral imaging
Multispectral imaging is a technique that involves capturing and analyzing images at multiple discrete spectral bands within the electromagnetic spectrum. Unlike hyperspectral imaging, which acquires...
multispectral photography
The use of narrow bandpass filters and special photographic emulsions to discern features of a surface that would not be easily recognizable with regular black-and-white or color photographic methods.
multispectral scanner
An instrument used to record the emittance or reflectance of an object by scanning with discrete spectral resolution over a wide spectral band, or recording many discrete spectral bands...

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