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cameras, imaging dictionary terms
second-harmonic generation microscopyA nonlinear label-free imaging technique commonly used during surgical procedures for the visualization of collagen fibers and muscle tissue (myosin) with submillimeter resolution. During the second-harmonic generation (SHG) process, the two photons...
charge-coupled device (CCD)A self-scanning semiconductor imaging device that utilizes MOS (metal-oxide semiconductor) technology, surface storage and...
Volumetric ImagingA technique to capture a 3D volume of activity in a single 2D image. This contrasts with conventional imaging techniques...
data cubeA multidimensional array of values that is commonly used in programming to describe a time series of image data. Each...
C-mountA standard lens interface initially made for 16mm movie cameras and now used primarily on closed-circuit television cameras....
liquid crystal eyewearA wireless stereo imaging device used in conjunction with a monitor to produce a virtual interactive environment. Liquid...
multiband cameraA group of four cameras loaded with different combinations of filters and film (one is usually an infrared color film) to...
contrast filterA filter designed to improve contrast in an imaging system. For visual and black and white photosystems, a yellow filter is...
target1. The anode or anticathode of an x-ray tube that emits x-rays when bombarded by electrons. 2. The screen in a television...
nanostructured glassA unique glass made up of nano-structured materials to create millimeter sized monolithic glass space-variant polarization...
Schmidt cameraA camera that consists of a concave spherical mirror with an aspheric plate situated at the center of curvature of the...
coded aperture imagingAn imaging process in which the single opening of a simple pinhole camera is replaced with many openings called,...
aerial photographyPhotographing of terrain on the ground and objects in the air by cameras mounted in aircraft; utilized in satellites,...
electrostatic image dissectorA nonmagnetic instrument utilizing an electrofocus and deflection tube with a photocathode for imaging purposes. The optical...
Polarization ImagingA subsurface imaging technique based upon the polarization of light reflected off an object. The polarization of reflected...
cosine fourth lawA formula indicating that, for an imaging lens system, the image brightness for off-axis points will fall off at a rate...
microenvironmental control systemEquipment that supports microscopic live-cell imaging by managing the gas, media perfusion, temperature and other factors to...
image photocounting distribution (IPD)Photon flow created by imaging of light into a detector array; IPD is the electrical signal used by the image processor in a...
mutual coherent function (MCF)A function that quantifies the performance degradation of coherent communications systems, imaging systems and all systems...
line scan cameraAn optical instrument used for quality control purposes that builds a 2D image of an object out of a series of one-line...
single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)A medical imaging method in which gamma camera heads rotate about the patient to detect radionuclides, enabling physicians...
Debye-Sears ultrasonic cellA device used in ultrasonic imaging to measure the velocity and attenuation of compressional waves in a transparent liquid...
instantaneous field of view (IFOV)A measurement of a sensor's intrinsic field of view, as distinct from what the sensor can perceive when scanning motion is...
copper oxide photocellAn early type of nonvacuum photocell consisting of a layer of copper oxide on a metallic substrate, with a thin transparent...
electro-optic Fabry-Perot spectroscopyThe spectroscopic analysis of interference patterns using an electronic imaging tube with a Fabry-Perot interferometer to...
ultrasonic imagingThe formation and display of three-dimensional images by ultrasonic energy. In one technique, the energy pulses from an...
flatbed scannerAn imaging device analogous to a drum scanner, but operating at greater speeds; it uses a row of sensors to traverse an...
minimum resolvable temperature (MRT)In a thermal imaging system, the smallest change in blackbody equivalent temperature that can be detected clearly by the...
synthetic interferometric imageAn imaging technique in which an object moving through an interference field formed in space scatters light and is spatially...
thermal imagingThe process of producing a visible two-dimensional image of a scene that is dependent on differences in thermal or infrared...
Knife-Edge Scanning MicroscopeKnife-Edge Scanning Microscope (KESM): An imaging device originally created to image whole mouse brain volumes at...
pulse video thermography (PVT)A noncontact, nondestructive method of measuring defects in thin composite materials, using a xenon flashtube to generate...
high-voltage electron microscope (HVEM)An imaging device whose technology contributes three specific advantages: ability to study large solid specimens that...
run length codingA digital imaging method whereby the first gray level of each sequential point-by-point sample and its position in the...
microfilm cameraA camera used to reduce originals onto film for easy storage. There are two basic types: one in which the film is fixed...
two-photon excited fluorescenceTwo-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) is a nonlinear optical method that allows imaging of biological cells and living...
transparent electrophotographic (TEP) filmsImaging materials that generally consist of a polyester base, a transparent electrically conductive layer and an organic...
dark frameA frame taken to identify electronic noise in a CCD imaging device. A dark frame is recorded without exposing the CCD to any...
aberrationA departure from ideal paraxial imaging behavior. The distortion of an optical field wavefront as it is propagated through...
saccadic motionThe movement of the eye as it focuses on details of a scene. Some imaging systems mimic this movement by small, rapid...
gravitational imagingA process used to detect minute gravitational fields and to display images from objects by means of radiated gravitational...
image intensifierAn electro-optic device consisting of an electronic tube equipped with a light-sensitive electron emitter at one end, and a...
tessar lensA lens similar to the Cooke triplet anastigmat, with the rear crown achromatized for improved coverage and definition. It is...
stereoplottingThe imaging of two photographs of a stereo pair, in complementary colors, for the preparation of contour maps.
charge-injection device (CID)A solid-state imaging device utilizing an image sensor composed of a two-dimensional array of coupled MOS (metal-oxide...
microcircuit manufacturingThe formation of transistors, diodes, capacitors, resistors and other electronic elements directly on a flake of silicon by...
hyperspectral imagingMethods for identifying and mapping materials through spectroscopic remote sensing. Also called imaging spectroscopy;...
single-walled carbon nanotubesReferred to as SWCNTs, these cylindrical nanostructures composed of a folded sheet of graphene can be used as near-infrared...
photoconductive antennaPhotoconductive antenna (PCA) is a semiconductor element that generates or detects high-frequency electromagnetic signals....
multianode microchannel array detectorA photon-counting instrument for use in both space-borne and ground-based photometric and spectroscopic instrumentation....
periscopeAn optical instrument designed to displace the line of sight in a vertical direction. For submarines and other military uses...
range axisThe third dimension (depth or Z-axis) in an imaging system.
femtosecond laserA type of ultrafast laser that creates a minimal amount of heat-affected zones by having a pulse duration below the...
pseudohologramCoded image obtained optically with a nonredundant pinhole array imaging aperture.
focal plane assembly (FPA)An infrared imaging device composed of a detector array and readout electronics. It may include a cryogenic cooling system....
camera shutterAn apparatus, designed for use with a camera, that is used to rapidly open the path from lens to film, to maintain the...
Geometrical opticsThe area of optics in which the propagation of light is described by geometrical lines (or rays) governed by Fermat's...
constant luminance encoderA device used in broadcast CCD cameras to improve definition in heavily saturated colors by band-limiting the color...
epifluorescence microscopyFluorescence imaging technique in which the excitation light from the objective is directed into the sample producing...
Doppler-spread imagingAn imaging process, similar to specific Doppler mapping radar techniques, that utilizes a laser, an optical imaging system,...
cinesextantAn optical instrument used to track and image a test vehicle (target) throughout its flight. The cinesextant frequently...
standard thermal profile (STP)In infrared imaging systems used for mass screening of printed circuit boards or other quality control applications, an...
Digital Imaging and Communications in MedicineDigital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is an international standard for medical imaging created by both the...
parallel processingIn imaging, the processing of pixel data in such a way that a group of pixels is analyzed at one time rather than one pixel...
evaporagraphA sensor generally used for infrared imaging. It consists of two chambers separated by a thin, blackened membrane. An...
Multispectral ImagingMultispectral Imaging: Creation of an image where each pixel contains more than three spectral data points, typically four...
negative-refraction metamaterialAn artificial material, engineered to have a negative refractive index value, such that light or any other form of...
Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM)Also known as single plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), this process was designed for imaging of sensitive samples and...
active infrared systemimaging system which clearly shows the IR signals in the field of view as well as ambient environment
moving aperture techniqueMethod for reducing laser speckle in which the object field comes from a real diffuse object or the reconstructed object...
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)A phenomenon, exploited for medical imaging, in which the nuclei of material placed in a strong magnetic field will absorb...
run end codingA digital imaging method whereby the first gray level in the ordered sequence and the position of the first lengths of all...
synthetic aperture radar (SAR)Imaging radar that increases the sweep of its along-track (or azimuth) capacity by measuring not only the time delay of the...
high-content screeningAlso known as HCS, an analytical method designed to collect statistically relevant amounts of quantitative data on many...
thermomagnetic imagingThe production of an image on a magnetic film that is exposed to infrared radiation and heated to a point above Curie...
emissivity correction matrixA computer-generated routine for achieving true-temperature readings in thermal infrared imaging systems.
parallel scanningIn imaging systems, a line of detectors the full length of the object space that scans the full width of the image in one...
aerial cameraCamera designed for the imaging of the earth's surface in order to obtain high quality aerial images
positron emission tomography (PET)A medical imaging device that uses a ring of crystal/photomultiplier tube assemblies encircling the patient to detect gamma...
radioactive tracerA radioactive element that is placed or injected into a system to obtain an autoradiogram of the system. It is used in a...
binary thresholdingAn imaging technique that labels all gray pixels as either black or white before processing begins.
video scan converterA device that changes the number of lines per frame of a video image to adapt to a lower resolution format, either by...
integration timeIn an imaging device, the length of time during which the sensing elements are collecting charge between transfers to the...
spectrographAn optical instrument for forming the spectrum of a light source and recording it on a film. The dispersing medium may be a...
false colorIn imaging technology, assigning color to black and white images to differentiate features or convey information. Also...
visually coupled airborne systems simulator (VCASS)A visual system including a tiny television tube and imaging optics, all contained in a helmet to be worn by pilots in...
image comparisonA method used in imaging to detect subtle differences between two apparently similar pictures. It can be achieved by...
speckle imagingA technique for obtaining improved resolution of images produced by large telescopes and distorted by the effects of...
focal plane array (FPA)A linear or two-dimensional matrix of individual detector elements, typically used at the focus of an imaging system.
spatial resolutionIn a vision system, the linear dimensions (X and Y) of the field of view, as measured in the image plane, divided by the...
bracketingIn photography, the technique of taking multiple pictures of the same subject at different exposures to compensate for...
infrared microscopeA type of microscope that uses radiation in the infrared region to illuminate objects that are opaque to visible radiation....
scanning acoustic microscope (SAM)Also called scanning laser acoustic microscope. A device that uses high-frequency ultrasound waves to penetrate surfaces. A...
white balanceA feature of some imaging devices, such as digital cameras, that allows them to compensate for different lighting conditions...
photoacoustic imagingAbbreviated PAI. An imaging modality with a hybrid technique based on the acoustic detection of optical absorption from...
noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT)In a thermal imaging system, the change in temperature that yields a signal-to-noise ratio of unity.
linear arrayA solid-state video detector consisting of a single row of light-sensitive semiconductor devices, used in linear-array...
point light source1. With respect to angular subtense, a source of light, such as a star, that is very small. In a lab, a point source may be...
uniformly redundant array (URA)Array used in coded-aperture imaging experiments with two-beam CO2 lasers that provide an artifact-free process, faithful...
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)An imaging technique used in radiology that is based on the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to produce...
panoramic cameraA camera designed to form a continuous record of an expansive section of the horizon. The typical panoramic camera is...
multimodality imagingA technique that combines two or more imaging processes in order to minimize the disadvantages within each of the...
antiblooming gate (ABG)A device that prevents electrons from a saturated pixel in a CCD imaging device from spilling into an adjacent pixel. The...
analytical phototriangulationThe use of photographs taken from specially placed cameras, to develop, through computation, a spatial solution of the...
particle image velocimetry (PIV)A whole-flow-field technique providing instantaneous velocity vector measurements in a cross-section of a flow that is...
infrared automatic mass screening (IRAMS)A thermal infrared imaging procedure developed for quality control of printed circuit boards. The thermogram of each board...
optical coherence tomography angiographyAlso known as OCT-A, optical coherence tomography angiography is an imaging technique that uses light waves to measure...
holographic particle velocimetry (HPV)A method of measuring flow velocity by seeding the flow with neutrally buoyant particles and using a pulsed laser to...
imaging scienceThe science of producing, recording, storing, transmitting and displaying visual images by any system (photographic, video,...
rotary cameraA camera system used for microphotography that has a structure, such as a cylinder or surveyor belt, to rotate the documents...
laser guide starAn artificial star used to aid in adaptive optics imaging of the sky. The guide star is provided from a telescope system on...
narrow-angle dark-field illuminationAn imaging system designed to highlight small deviations in a planar reflective object such as a mirror. The system can be...
stereolithographyA method of creating real three-dimensional models by using lasers driven by CAD software. In contrast to the normal...
double-Gauss lensA fast, wide-angle lens used in television and photographic cameras, with excellent overall correction, but subject to...
Zernike's phase contrast methodThe introduction of a filter into an imaging system to implement a phase contrast for an intensity mapping of a pure phase...
alphaIn computer imaging, a value representing opacity.
photogrammetric equipmentThe special cameras, film and other means for forming maps by aerial photography.
optical coherence tomography (OCT)A noninvasive (typically medical) optical imaging acquisition technique that uses light waves to form distinct, three...
triangulationA method of measuring distance by recording a single scene from two points of perspective. Surveying instruments can be...
catadioptric imaging systemA system that uses both reflection and refraction to achieve its focal power. While the relative powers of the lenses and...
depth of fieldThe distance, on either side of the object plane focused on, through which satisfactory image definition can be obtained....
Line-scan cameraAn optical instrument used for quality control purposes that builds a 2D image of an object out of a series of one-line...
scanning tunneling microscope (STM)A high-resolution imaging instrument that can detect and measure the positions of individual atoms on the surface of a...
raster image processorIn imaging technology, a device that converts raster or line-scan data to pixel form for further processing.
differential interference contrast microscopyDifferential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, sometimes called Nomarski Microscopy after the inventor Georges...
otoscopeA light-conducting and imaging system used to inspect the inner ear.
solid-state imaging systemAn imaging system that uses a mosaic of tiny light-sensitive semiconductors (phototransistors) to produce individual outputs...
objectiveThe optical element that receives light from the object and forms the first or primary image in telescopes and microscopes....
forward-looking infrared (FLIR)A night-vision device that uses one or more infrared transducers to scan a scene in the 3- to 5-µm or 8- to 12-µm...
clippingA defect in an optical system that prevents rays from reaching their intended destination; it can be caused by an undersized...
digital radiography (DR)Medical diagnostic (x-ray) imaging using laser printers to produce high-resolution digital hard copy instead of film exposed...
aperture imagingThe formation of an image by a pinhole aperture that transmits radiation, such as gamma radiation.
cameraA light-tight box that receives light from an object or scene and focuses it to form an image on a light-sensitive material...
frame grabberImage processing peripheral that converts video images from cameras into digital format and transfers these digital images...
novelty filterA filtering device that detects what is new in a scene of interest. Often compared to that of a temporal high pass filter,...

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