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IMAGING DICTIONARY TERMS
novelty filterA filtering device that detects what is new in a scene of interest. Often compared to that of a temporal high pass filter,...
evaporagraphA sensor generally used for infrared imaging. It consists of two chambers separated by a thin, blackened membrane. An...
holographic particle velocimetry (HPV)A method of measuring flow velocity by seeding the flow with neutrally buoyant particles and using a pulsed laser to...
mutual coherent function (MCF)A function that quantifies the performance degradation of coherent communications systems, imaging systems and all systems...
spatial resolutionIn a vision system, the linear dimensions (X and Y) of the field of view, as measured in the image plane, divided by the...
visually coupled airborne systems simulator (VCASS)A visual system including a tiny television tube and imaging optics, all contained in a helmet to be worn by pilots in...
infrared microscopeA type of microscope that uses radiation in the infrared region to illuminate objects that are opaque to visible radiation....
noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT)In a thermal imaging system, the change in temperature that yields a signal-to-noise ratio of unity.
Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM)Also known as single plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), this process was designed for imaging of sensitive samples and...
multianode microchannel array detectorA photon-counting instrument for use in both space-borne and ground-based photometric and spectroscopic instrumentation....
high-content screeningAlso known as HCS, an analytical method designed to collect statistically relevant amounts of quantitative data on many...
synthetic aperture radar (SAR)Imaging radar that increases the sweep of its along-track (or azimuth) capacity by measuring not only the time delay of the...
speckle imagingA technique for obtaining improved resolution of images produced by large telescopes and distorted by the effects of...
narrow-angle dark-field illuminationAn imaging system designed to highlight small deviations in a planar reflective object such as a mirror. The system can be...
charge-injection device (CID)A solid-state imaging device utilizing an image sensor composed of a two-dimensional array of coupled MOS (metal-oxide...
clippingA defect in an optical system that prevents rays from reaching their intended destination; it can be caused by an undersized...
alphaIn computer imaging, a value representing opacity.
solid-state imaging systemAn imaging system that uses a mosaic of tiny light-sensitive semiconductors (phototransistors) to produce individual outputs...
Knife-Edge Scanning MicroscopeKnife-Edge Scanning Microscope (KESM): An imaging device originally created to image whole mouse brain volumes at...
run length codingA digital imaging method whereby the first gray level of each sequential point-by-point sample and its position in the...
periscopeAn optical instrument designed to displace the line of sight in a vertical direction. For submarines and other military uses...
integration timeIn an imaging device, the length of time during which the sensing elements are collecting charge between transfers to the...
high-voltage electron microscope (HVEM)An imaging device whose technology contributes three specific advantages: ability to study large solid specimens that...
hyperspectral imagingMethods for identifying and mapping materials through spectroscopic remote sensing. Also called imaging spectroscopy;...
active infrared systemimaging system which clearly shows the IR signals in the field of view as well as ambient environment
binary thresholdingAn imaging technique that labels all gray pixels as either black or white before processing begins.
microenvironmental control systemEquipment that supports microscopic live-cell imaging by managing the gas, media perfusion, temperature and other factors to...
Doppler-spread imagingAn imaging process, similar to specific Doppler mapping radar techniques, that utilizes a laser, an optical imaging system,...
differential interference contrast microscopyDifferential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, sometimes called Nomarski Microscopy after the inventor Georges...
negative-refraction metamaterialAn artificial material, engineered to have a negative refractive index value, such that light or any other form of...
raster image processorIn imaging technology, a device that converts raster or line-scan data to pixel form for further processing.
Volumetric ImagingA technique to capture a 3D volume of activity in a single 2D image. This contrasts with conventional imaging techniques...
depth of fieldThe distance, on either side of the object plane focused on, through which satisfactory image definition can be obtained....
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)An imaging technique used in radiology that is based on the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to produce...
catadioptric imaging systemA system that uses both reflection and refraction to achieve its focal power. While the relative powers of the lenses and...
multimodality imagingA technique that combines two or more imaging processes in order to minimize the disadvantages within each of the...
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)A phenomenon, exploited for medical imaging, in which the nuclei of material placed in a strong magnetic field will absorb...
imaging scienceThe science of producing, recording, storing, transmitting and displaying visual images by any system (photographic, video,...
stereolithographyA method of creating real three-dimensional models by using lasers driven by CAD software. In contrast to the normal...
charge-coupled device (CCD)A self-scanning semiconductor imaging device that utilizes MOS (metal-oxide semiconductor) technology, surface storage and...
spectrographAn optical instrument for forming the spectrum of a light source and recording it on a film. The dispersing medium may be a...
parallel scanningIn imaging systems, a line of detectors the full length of the object space that scans the full width of the image in one...
false colorIn imaging technology, assigning color to black and white images to differentiate features or convey information. Also...
infrared automatic mass screening (IRAMS)A thermal infrared imaging procedure developed for quality control of printed circuit boards. The thermogram of each board...
epifluorescence microscopyFluorescence imaging technique in which the excitation light from the objective is directed into the sample producing...
positron emission tomography (PET)A medical imaging device that uses a ring of crystal/photomultiplier tube assemblies encircling the patient to detect gamma...
pseudohologramCoded image obtained optically with a nonredundant pinhole array imaging aperture.
scanning acoustic microscope (SAM)Also called scanning laser acoustic microscope. A device that uses high-frequency ultrasound waves to penetrate surfaces. A...
Debye-Sears ultrasonic cellA device used in ultrasonic imaging to measure the velocity and attenuation of compressional waves in a transparent liquid...
femtosecond laserA type of ultrafast laser that creates a minimal amount of heat-affected zones by having a pulse duration below the...
video scan converterA device that changes the number of lines per frame of a video image to adapt to a lower resolution format, either by...
contrast filterA filter designed to improve contrast in an imaging system. For visual and black and white photosystems, a yellow filter is...
two-photon excited fluorescenceTwo-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) is a nonlinear optical method that allows imaging of biological cells and living...
single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)A medical imaging method in which gamma camera heads rotate about the patient to detect radionuclides, enabling physicians...
point light source1. With respect to angular subtense, a source of light, such as a star, that is very small. In a lab, a point source may be...
thermal imagingThe process of producing a visible two-dimensional image of a scene that is dependent on differences in thermal or infrared...
liquid crystal eyewearA wireless stereo imaging device used in conjunction with a monitor to produce a virtual interactive environment. Liquid...
antiblooming gate (ABG)A device that prevents electrons from a saturated pixel in a CCD imaging device from spilling into an adjacent pixel. The...
electro-optic Fabry-Perot spectroscopyThe spectroscopic analysis of interference patterns using an electronic imaging tube with a Fabry-Perot interferometer to...
uniformly redundant array (URA)Array used in coded-aperture imaging experiments with two-beam CO2 lasers that provide an artifact-free process, faithful...
image comparisonA method used in imaging to detect subtle differences between two apparently similar pictures. It can be achieved by...
synthetic interferometric imageAn imaging technique in which an object moving through an interference field formed in space scatters light and is spatially...
cosine fourth lawA formula indicating that, for an imaging lens system, the image brightness for off-axis points will fall off at a rate...
white balanceA feature of some imaging devices, such as digital cameras, that allows them to compensate for different lighting conditions...
saccadic motionThe movement of the eye as it focuses on details of a scene. Some imaging systems mimic this movement by small, rapid...
focal plane array (FPA)A linear or two-dimensional matrix of individual detector elements, typically used at the focus of an imaging system.
parallel processingIn imaging, the processing of pixel data in such a way that a group of pixels is analyzed at one time rather than one pixel...
range axisThe third dimension (depth or Z-axis) in an imaging system.
optical coherence tomography angiographyAlso known as OCT-A, optical coherence tomography angiography is an imaging technique that uses light waves to measure...
triangulationA method of measuring distance by recording a single scene from two points of perspective. Surveying instruments can be...
moving aperture techniqueMethod for reducing laser speckle in which the object field comes from a real diffuse object or the reconstructed object...
scanning tunneling microscope (STM)A high-resolution imaging instrument that can detect and measure the positions of individual atoms on the surface of a...
electrostatic image dissectorA nonmagnetic instrument utilizing an electrofocus and deflection tube with a photocathode for imaging purposes. The optical...
stereoplottingThe imaging of two photographs of a stereo pair, in complementary colors, for the preparation of contour maps.
standard thermal profile (STP)In infrared imaging systems used for mass screening of printed circuit boards or other quality control applications, an...
image photocounting distribution (IPD)Photon flow created by imaging of light into a detector array; IPD is the electrical signal used by the image processor in a...
target1. The anode or anticathode of an x-ray tube that emits x-rays when bombarded by electrons. 2. The screen in a television...
Multispectral ImagingMultispectral Imaging: Creation of an image where each pixel contains more than three spectral data points, typically four...
Digital Imaging and Communications in MedicineDigital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is an international standard for medical imaging created by both the...
ultrasonic imagingThe formation and display of three-dimensional images by ultrasonic energy. In one technique, the energy pulses from an...
coded aperture imagingAn imaging process in which the single opening of a simple pinhole camera is replaced with many openings called,...
forward-looking infrared (FLIR)A night-vision device that uses one or more infrared transducers to scan a scene in the 3- to 5-µm or 8- to 12-µm...
digital radiography (DR)Medical diagnostic (x-ray) imaging using laser printers to produce high-resolution digital hard copy instead of film exposed...
Geometrical opticsThe area of optics in which the propagation of light is described by geometrical lines (or rays) governed by Fermat's...
flatbed scannerAn imaging device analogous to a drum scanner, but operating at greater speeds; it uses a row of sensors to traverse an...
run end codingA digital imaging method whereby the first gray level in the ordered sequence and the position of the first lengths of all...
pulse video thermography (PVT)A noncontact, nondestructive method of measuring defects in thin composite materials, using a xenon flashtube to generate...
cameraA light-tight box that receives light from an object or scene and focuses it to form an image on a light-sensitive material...
photoconductive antennaPhotoconductive antenna (PCA) is a semiconductor element that generates or detects high-frequency electromagnetic signals....
photoacoustic imagingAbbreviated PAI. An imaging modality with a hybrid technique based on the acoustic detection of optical absorption from...
transparent electrophotographic (TEP) filmsImaging materials that generally consist of a polyester base, a transparent electrically conductive layer and an organic...
thermomagnetic imagingThe production of an image on a magnetic film that is exposed to infrared radiation and heated to a point above Curie...
aperture imagingThe formation of an image by a pinhole aperture that transmits radiation, such as gamma radiation.
otoscopeA light-conducting and imaging system used to inspect the inner ear.
radioactive tracerA radioactive element that is placed or injected into a system to obtain an autoradiogram of the system. It is used in a...
gravitational imagingA process used to detect minute gravitational fields and to display images from objects by means of radiated gravitational...
instantaneous field of view (IFOV)A measurement of a sensor's intrinsic field of view, as distinct from what the sensor can perceive when scanning motion is...
image intensifierAn electro-optic device consisting of an electronic tube equipped with a light-sensitive electron emitter at one end, and a...
emissivity correction matrixA computer-generated routine for achieving true-temperature readings in thermal infrared imaging systems.
nanostructured glassA unique glass made up of nano-structured materials to create millimeter sized monolithic glass space-variant polarization...
Polarization ImagingA subsurface imaging technique based upon the polarization of light reflected off an object. The polarization of reflected...
optical coherence tomography (OCT)A noninvasive (typically medical) optical imaging acquisition technique that uses light waves to form distinct, three...
minimum resolvable temperature (MRT)In a thermal imaging system, the smallest change in blackbody equivalent temperature that can be detected clearly by the...
Zernike's phase contrast methodThe introduction of a filter into an imaging system to implement a phase contrast for an intensity mapping of a pure phase...
dark frameA frame taken to identify electronic noise in a CCD imaging device. A dark frame is recorded without exposing the CCD to any...
aberrationA departure from ideal paraxial imaging behavior. The distortion of an optical field wavefront as it is propagated through...
focal plane assembly (FPA)An infrared imaging device composed of a detector array and readout electronics. It may include a cryogenic cooling system....
aerial cameraCamera designed for the imaging of the earth's surface in order to obtain high quality aerial images
data cubeA multidimensional array of values that is commonly used in programming to describe a time series of image data. Each...
laser guide starAn artificial star used to aid in adaptive optics imaging of the sky. The guide star is provided from a telescope system on...
second-harmonic generation microscopyA nonlinear label-free imaging technique commonly used during surgical procedures for the visualization of collagen fibers...
single-walled carbon nanotubesReferred to as SWCNTs, these cylindrical nanostructures composed of a folded sheet of graphene can be used as near-infrared...

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