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MORE MATERIALS, COATINGSMATERIALS, COATINGS DICTIONARY TERMS
two-six (II-VI)Referring to compound semiconductor materials combining one element with two valence electrons and one or more with six. Examples include beryllium oxide and zinc selenide.
Grittington testA method of determining the abrasion resistance of very hard materials by passing a weighted wiper blade across them in a...
infrared reflectorAn optical component coated to reflect infrared radiation. Gold, silver and aluminum are typical coating materials.
computer polarization holographyA technique used to store wavefront information on thin polarization information-recordable materials by controlling the...
microphotofabricationThe formation of microimages for microreduction. The technique is used, for example, in the production of precision reticles...
ferromagnetismThe properties of certain materials that cause them to have relative permeabilities that exceed unity. This permeability...
Murty interferometerA form of shearing interferometer that contains a simple wedged (plane-parallel) glass plate with a nonzero optical path...
photoconductivityThe conductivity increase exhibited by some nonmetallic materials, resulting from the free carriers generated when photon...
Czochralski techniquePopular process for silicon and polycrystalline production that consists of an alteration of the original state of a...
ion-assisted deposition (IAD)A technique for improving the structure density of thin-film coatings by bombarding the growing film with accelerated ions...
linear plasticA term for thermoplastic optical materials; that is, those in which the polymer chains remain linear after heating and...
low-loss fiberOptical fiber that transmits a greater percentage of input light than does high-loss step-index fiber. Low-loss fiber...
metamaterialA material engineered from artificial matter not found in nature. The artificial makeup and design of metamaterials give...
Verdet constantA factor of an equation of the Faraday effect, which is the rotation of the plane of light polarization by transparent...
slab-dielectric waveguideA waveguide with a rectangular cross section that is composed entirely of dielectric materials.
electrophotographyThe photographic recording of an image formed by the alteration in electrical properties of the sensitive materials and...
phase conjugationThe use of a reflective device, which can be fashioned from a variety of materials including gases, solids, dyes, aerosols,...
nondestructive testing (NDT)Any testing method for materials and components that does not damage or destroy the test sample. Some of the methods used...
spectrosensitometerA sensitometer having a continuously controlled monochromator to measure spectral sensitivity and contrast of photographic...
computer-generated holographic scanner (CGHS)A phase reflection scanner that eliminates the need for a complex translation device while maintaining a high-energy-density...
dielectric coatingA high-reflectance coating consisting of alternating layers of quarter-wave film of a higher refractive index and lower...
ferroelectricThat property of particular materials that determines that they will be polarized in one direction or the other, or reversed...
biophotonicsThe technology that deals with the interaction of organic materials with light and other forms of radiant energy whose...
PN junctionThe transition boundary between P-type and N-type materials in a semiconductor.
metallographic polishing machineA small optical polishing machine intended for polishing the surface of a metal specimen before etching for examination...
interstitial absorbing coatingAn absorbing coating medium between fibers, used in some fused fiber optic plates to absorb unwanted light. Such coatings...
cold coatingA method of applying antireflection coatings to optics that avoids the elevated temperatures normally used. A cold coating...
nanostructured glassA unique glass made up of nano-structured materials to create millimeter sized monolithic glass space-variant polarization...
adhesiveAn intermolecular substance that serves to hold materials together. Two types are used in the optical industry: one, which...
grenz raysThe soft x-rays used in the industrial radiography of materials having too small a range of densities to produce an image...
polarizing coatingA coating made up of particular birefringent materials having polarizing properties. It may be used, in some cases, to...
hermetic bondingThe total fusion and sealing of materials, or usually an enclosure, to ensure that they are airtight.
amphoteric materialsSubstances that exhibit the characteristics of both acids and bases and are capable of both P- and N-type conductivity.
epitaxyA well controlled thin films technique for growing films with good crystal structure in ultra high vacuum environments at...
polymerizationProcess of synthesizing long molecular chain materials (polymers) by reaction of many small molecules (usually thousands)...
semiconductor laserA semiconductor material which is designed and grown for the efficient production of short wavelength stimulated emission...
safelightFiltered light to which photographic or other photosensitive materials are not responsive; used to illuminate darkrooms when...
triboluminescenceLuminescence that arises from friction and that usually occurs in crystalline materials.
cleanroomAn area in which airborne particulates can be monitored and controlled so that given size particles do not exceed a...
sensitometryPrimarily the measurement of photographic sensitivity of certain materials such as photographic film. It refers to the...
electron-beam evaporationA method of thin-film deposition in which electrons boiled off a heated cathode are used to melt the coating material. If a...
flash photographic density filterA filter, partially opaque to near-ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation, that may be made by exposing and processing...
radioactivity detectorAn instrument used to detect radioactive materials: alpha particles or helium nuclei; beta particles or free electrons; and...
laser lithotripterA laser device intended for crushing urinary tract stones so they can be flushed from the body. Light is introduced via...
hyperspectral imagingMethods for identifying and mapping materials through spectroscopic remote sensing. Also called imaging spectroscopy;...
terahertz radiationElectromagnetic radiation with frequencies between 300 GHz and 10 THz, and existing between regions of the electromagnetic...
quantum dotsAlso known as QDs. Nanocrystals of semiconductor materials that fluoresce when excited by external light sources, primarily...
coated opticsOptical elements that have been coated with one or more layers of dielectric, or metallic material. These coatings serve to...
three-five (III-V)Referring to compound semiconductor materials combining one element that has three valence electrons with one or more that...
microphotonicsThe technology of manipulating light on a micro scale. In optical communications, this is usually accomplished using two or...
infrared optical materialThe range of materials that, unlike glass, may be used in the infrared. Water-soluble salts, such as cesium iodide, and...
Mohs hardnessMaterial hardness scale that is used to characterize the scratch resistance of various materials. This surface hardness...
transparent electrophotographic (TEP) filmsImaging materials that generally consist of a polyester base, a transparent electrically conductive layer and an organic...
polarimeterA polariscope with a half-shade device and an angular scale generally attached to the analyzer. It is used to measure the...
substrate blankMaterials (usually ceramics or other semiconductors) that are molded into approximate forms to use as supports for large...
sol-gelA gelatinous fluid that can be used as a porous thin-film coating for optical components, including laser beam collimators,...
polariscopeA combination of a polarizer and an analyzer that is used to detect birefringence or rotation of the plane of polarization...
calcium tungstateWhite, tetragonal crystals used in the production of luminous coatings.
radiation trappingThat process by which radiation spontaneously emitted by a volume of optical materials is resonantly reabsorbed within the...
evaporation coatingCoating carried out in a sealed chamber evacuated by a mechanical pump in series with an oil diffusion pump to a pressure...
nanotechnologyThe use of atoms, molecules and molecular-scale structures to enhance existing technology and develop new materials and...
axial gradient technologyA method of designing lasers whereby the laser rod is cut into elliptical discs and cooled by running water over the disc...
negative-refraction metamaterialAn artificial material, engineered to have a negative refractive index value, such that light or any other form of...
idiochromaticPertaining to the possession of photoelectric characteristics as a result of the properties of the true crystal and not of...
pyrolysisA process that employs heat to remove polyimide plastic coatings from silica optical fibers and capillary tubing.
chromatic aberrationThe lens aberration resulting from the normal increase in refractive index of all common materials toward the blue end of...
diode-pumped solid-state laserA compact solid-state laser, referred to as DPSSL, created when a laser diode pumps light into either the sides or end of...
color aging testA test used to measure the degree of fading of different colored materials, especially those involving organic dyes, which...
radiographyA photographic process using x-ray radiation or the g-rays of radioactive materials.
beta fluorographyThe use of a short-duration electron beam to record high-speed events that occur in microscopic objects made of materials...
high-density storageExtensive data storage in the form of bits, with the use of high-resolution photographic materials and optics, and generally...
etching liquidAn acid used to etch the surfaces of particular materials. For glass, hydrofluoric acid is used either as a liquid or a...
beta radiationThe high-speed electrons and positrons emitted by radioactive materials.
dark boxA lightproof box used for storing photosensitive materials.
cordA threadlike inclusion within a blank of optical glass. Rarely found in quality optical materials.
tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopyA spectroscopic technique that combines the high chemical specificity of Raman scattering and signal sensitivity provided by...
Faraday rotationThe effect discovered by Faraday in 1845 whereby nonoptically active materials or substances become capable of rotating the...
solar simulationThe simulation of solar radiation in the infrared and ultraviolet spectrum for the analysis of extraterrestrial sunlight and...
guided waveA wave in which energy is focused near a boundary separating materials having different properties. Propagation of the wave...
laser reflow solderingUse of a laser to solder joints by melting the solder coatings on the mating components.
infrared spectrophotometerA spectrophotometer having a prism or, more frequently, a grating for the study and recording of infrared spectra. It...
neutral density coatingA coating applied to a neutral density glass that is designed to reduce the amount of light evenly across the transmitted...
resistance heaterA crucible made of electrically resistive material through which a current is passed to heat the material inside, which then...
slurryThe name of the mixture of liquid and grinding or polishing compounds used in processing optical materials.
soft coatingA term describing an antireflection coating that may be applied to optics that cannot tolerate the high temperatures usually...
band-to-band photoluminescenceThe emission of a photon by the return of an excited carrier from the conduction band to the valence band of a semiconductor...
isochromatic lines1. Lines of the same color. 2. A term used in photoelastic stress analysis to refer to the interference fringes produced in...
photoelasticityThe process of determining, with the aid of plane-polarized light, the stress distribution in materials under complex...
material scatteringThe total scattering attributable to the intrinsic properties of the materials through which an optical wave is...
stress birefringenceBirefringence of materials that is induced or altered by stress fields.
mechanical spliceA fiber splice accomplished by fixtures or materials, rather than by thermal fusion. Index matching material may be applied...
adiabatic laser colorimetryMethod for studying absorption coefficients of low-loss materials, in which a sample is allowed to come to thermal...
dichroism1. In reference to anisotropic materials, the selective absorption of light rays that vibrate in one particular plane...
drawing towerA system for fabricating optical fiber, consisting of a furnace that heats the materials, a polymer coating stage, a...
pulse video thermography (PVT)A noncontact, nondestructive method of measuring defects in thin composite materials, using a xenon flashtube to generate...
conduction weldingA type of laser welding of thin materials using a defocused or low-power carbon dioxide laser beam. The energy is absorbed...
hybrid optical integrated circuitDevice in which the various circuit elements are fabricated in different substrate materials and then appropriately joined...
enhanced Faraday effectThe occurrence of very large rotations in transparent materials at weak magnetic fields as predicted in the classical...
optical emission spectroscopy (OES)In dry etching, a method of characterizing the composition of solid materials such as metal. Atoms in the OES technique are...
translucentPertaining to materials having the property of reflecting a part and transmitting a part of the incident radiation.
incoherent bundleA bundle of filaments of optical glass or other transparent materials that transmit only light, not optical images. The...
optical ceramicsTransparent glassy and or crystalline structured materials engineered from inorganic, non-metallic materials via various...
electron-beam recording (EBR)The recording of the information contained in a modulated electron beam onto photographic or silicon resin-coated materials....
Fresnel reflectionThe reflection of a portion of light resulting when light is incident upon the surface between materials that have different...
petrographic microscopeA microscope equipped with a polarizer, an analyzer and a Bertrand lens to focus on the upper focal plane of the objective....
darkroomA room that is light-tight, permitting total darkness or illumination with a safelight when working with photosensitive...
acetoneOptic surface cleaning liquid that may be applied to glass, crystal, dielectric and metal surfaces; however, may not be...
pitch polishing compoundPitch for polishing mixed with other materials to give it the right viscosity so that it will follow the fine-ground lens...
corrected lensA compound lens, the dimensions and materials of which have been so chosen that the lens is appreciably free of aberrations.
refractive index contrastA measure of the relative difference in refractive index between two optical materials. Most commonly used in fiber optics...
spatterOf evaporative coatings, a condition resulting when small chunks of material fly from the hot crucible onto the substrate...
sclerometerAn instrument used to test the hardness of various materials. It measures the pressure on a standard point that is necessary...
glass melting furnaceA furnace used to heat glass materials. It may be a small laboratory-type furnace for small-scale experiments or large...
intrinsic detectorA photodetector composed of a photoconductive material that, when exposed to radiation, conducts without the aid of added...
microdensitometerThe fundamental tool of microdensitometry, the microdensitometer is an instrument used for the precise measurement of...
multilayer coatingA coating made up of many layers of material having alternating high and low refractive index. In this way, it is possible...
plastic opticsThe integration of plastic materials into optical applications. When the materials are refined into lenses, prisms and...
advanced photon sourceAn accelerator at the Argonne National Laboratory, providing powerful x-ray beams for materials research applications.
beam-addressable technologyThe application of reversible writing with a laser beam on particular storage materials. In one method, an amorphous film is...
depletion regionThe region at the PN junction in a semiconductor radiation detector where the potential energies of the two materials create...
didymium glassGlass tinted with mixed oxides of neodymium and praseodymium that, unlike most solid materials, have absorption bands that...
planform bondingA manufacturing process used to construct substrates for large optical components. Used with IR materials, planform bonding...
dielectricExhibiting the characteristic of materials that are electrical insulators or in which an electric field can be sustained...
photomagnetic effectThe direct influence of light on the magnetic susceptibility of particular materials.
annealingThe process of heating and slowly cooling a solid material, like glass or metal, to stabilize its thermal, electrical or...
mirror coatingOne or more thin-film  layers of optical material deposited on a mirror blank/substrate in order to enhance the way...
narcissusA defect in infrared systems that appears as a dark circular area on a displayed image, caused by radiation reflecting into...
light sectioningTechnique for measuring the volume bulk of materials as they move along a conveyor with an accuracy of better than 1...
optical materialsMaterials that, by virtue of their optical characteristics (i.e. refractive index, dispersion,  etc.), are used in...

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