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MORE MATERIALS, COATINGSMATERIALS, COATINGS DICTIONARY TERMS
electron-beam evaporationA method of thin-film deposition in which electrons boiled off a heated cathode are used to melt the coating material. If a multipocket crucible is used, many materials can be processed at the same time.
semiconductor laserA semiconductor material which is designed and grown for the efficient production of short wavelength stimulated emission...
biophotonicsThe technology that deals with the interaction of organic materials with light and other forms of radiant energy whose...
phase conjugationThe use of a reflective device, which can be fashioned from a variety of materials including gases, solids, dyes, aerosols,...
stress birefringenceBirefringence of materials that is induced or altered by stress fields.
glass melting furnaceA furnace used to heat glass materials. It may be a small laboratory-type furnace for small-scale experiments or large...
terahertz radiationElectromagnetic radiation with frequencies between 300 GHz and 10 THz, and existing between regions of the electromagnetic...
computer polarization holographyA technique used to store wavefront information on thin polarization information-recordable materials by controlling the...
drawing towerA system for fabricating optical fiber, consisting of a furnace that heats the materials, a polymer coating stage, a...
microphotofabricationThe formation of microimages for microreduction. The technique is used, for example, in the production of precision reticles...
infrared optical materialThe range of materials that, unlike glass, may be used in the infrared. Water-soluble salts, such as cesium iodide, and...
photomagnetic effectThe direct influence of light on the magnetic susceptibility of particular materials.
calcium tungstateWhite, tetragonal crystals used in the production of luminous coatings.
polarimeterA polariscope with a half-shade device and an angular scale generally attached to the analyzer. It is used to measure the...
neutral density coatingA coating applied to a neutral density glass that is designed to reduce the amount of light evenly across the transmitted...
soft coatingA term describing an antireflection coating that may be applied to optics that cannot tolerate the high temperatures usually...
resistance heaterA crucible made of electrically resistive material through which a current is passed to heat the material inside, which then...
optical emission spectroscopy (OES)In dry etching, a method of characterizing the composition of solid materials such as metal. Atoms in the OES technique are...
radiation trappingThat process by which radiation spontaneously emitted by a volume of optical materials is resonantly reabsorbed within the...
beta radiationThe high-speed electrons and positrons emitted by radioactive materials.
metallographic polishing machineA small optical polishing machine intended for polishing the surface of a metal specimen before etching for examination...
microphotonicsThe technology of manipulating light on a micro scale. In optical communications, this is usually accomplished using two or...
grenz raysThe soft x-rays used in the industrial radiography of materials having too small a range of densities to produce an image...
coated opticsOptical elements that have been coated with one or more layers of dielectric, or metallic material. These coatings serve to...
advanced photon sourceAn accelerator at the Argonne National Laboratory, providing powerful x-ray beams for materials research applications.
photoconductivityThe conductivity increase exhibited by some nonmetallic materials, resulting from the free carriers generated when photon...
transparent electrophotographic (TEP) filmsImaging materials that generally consist of a polyester base, a transparent electrically conductive layer and an organic...
beta fluorographyThe use of a short-duration electron beam to record high-speed events that occur in microscopic objects made of materials...
computer-generated holographic scanner (CGHS)A phase reflection scanner that eliminates the need for a complex translation device while maintaining a high-energy-density...
tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopyA spectroscopic technique that combines the high chemical specificity of Raman scattering and signal sensitivity provided by...
spatterOf evaporative coatings, a condition resulting when small chunks of material fly from the hot crucible onto the substrate...
nanotechnologyThe use of atoms, molecules and molecular-scale structures to enhance existing technology and develop new materials and...
high-density storageExtensive data storage in the form of bits, with the use of high-resolution photographic materials and optics, and generally...
electron-beam recording (EBR)The recording of the information contained in a modulated electron beam onto photographic or silicon resin-coated materials....
microdensitometerThe fundamental tool of microdensitometry, the microdensitometer is an instrument used for the precise measurement of...
quantum dotsAlso known as QDs. Nanocrystals of semiconductor materials that fluoresce when excited by external light sources, primarily...
slab-dielectric waveguideA waveguide with a rectangular cross section that is composed entirely of dielectric materials.
depletion regionThe region at the PN junction in a semiconductor radiation detector where the potential energies of the two materials create...
dielectric coatingA high-reflectance coating consisting of alternating layers of quarter-wave film of a higher refractive index and lower...
adiabatic laser colorimetryMethod for studying absorption coefficients of low-loss materials, in which a sample is allowed to come to thermal...
light sectioningTechnique for measuring the volume bulk of materials as they move along a conveyor with an accuracy of better than 1...
multilayer coatingA coating made up of many layers of material having alternating high and low refractive index. In this way, it is possible...
solar simulationThe simulation of solar radiation in the infrared and ultraviolet spectrum for the analysis of extraterrestrial sunlight and...
color aging testA test used to measure the degree of fading of different colored materials, especially those involving organic dyes, which...
infrared reflectorAn optical component coated to reflect infrared radiation. Gold, silver and aluminum are typical coating materials.
optical materialsMaterials that, by virtue of their optical characteristics (i.e. refractive index, dispersion,  etc.), are used in...
beam-addressable technologyThe application of reversible writing with a laser beam on particular storage materials. In one method, an amorphous film is...
Faraday rotationThe effect discovered by Faraday in 1845 whereby nonoptically active materials or substances become capable of rotating the...
safelightFiltered light to which photographic or other photosensitive materials are not responsive; used to illuminate darkrooms when...
two-six (II-VI)Referring to compound semiconductor materials combining one element with two valence electrons and one or more with six....
Grittington testA method of determining the abrasion resistance of very hard materials by passing a weighted wiper blade across them in a...
sclerometerAn instrument used to test the hardness of various materials. It measures the pressure on a standard point that is necessary...
guided waveA wave in which energy is focused near a boundary separating materials having different properties. Propagation of the wave...
infrared spectrophotometerA spectrophotometer having a prism or, more frequently, a grating for the study and recording of infrared spectra. It...
cleanroomAn area in which airborne particulates can be monitored and controlled so that given size particles do not exceed a...
isochromatic lines1. Lines of the same color. 2. A term used in photoelastic stress analysis to refer to the interference fringes produced in...
adhesiveAn intermolecular substance that serves to hold materials together. Two types are used in the optical industry: one, which...
darkroomA room that is light-tight, permitting total darkness or illumination with a safelight when working with photosensitive...
refractive index contrastA measure of the relative difference in refractive index between two optical materials. Most commonly used in fiber optics...
Mohs hardnessMaterial hardness scale that is used to characterize the scratch resistance of various materials. This surface hardness...
ferroelectricThat property of particular materials that determines that they will be polarized in one direction or the other, or reversed...
axial gradient technologyA method of designing lasers whereby the laser rod is cut into elliptical discs and cooled by running water over the disc...
incoherent bundleA bundle of filaments of optical glass or other transparent materials that transmit only light, not optical images. The...
annealingThe process of heating and slowly cooling a solid material, like glass or metal, to stabilize its thermal, electrical or...
sensitometryPrimarily the measurement of photographic sensitivity of certain materials such as photographic film. It refers to the...
cold coatingA method of applying antireflection coatings to optics that avoids the elevated temperatures normally used. A cold coating...
polariscopeA combination of a polarizer and an analyzer that is used to detect birefringence or rotation of the plane of polarization...
PN junctionThe transition boundary between P-type and N-type materials in a semiconductor.
optical ceramicsTransparent glassy and or crystalline structured materials engineered from inorganic, non-metallic materials via various...
laser lithotripterA laser device intended for crushing urinary tract stones so they can be flushed from the body. Light is introduced via...
nanostructured glassA unique glass made up of nano-structured materials to create millimeter sized monolithic glass space-variant polarization...
polarizing coatingA coating made up of particular birefringent materials having polarizing properties. It may be used, in some cases, to...
amphoteric materialsSubstances that exhibit the characteristics of both acids and bases and are capable of both P- and N-type conductivity.
ferromagnetismThe properties of certain materials that cause them to have relative permeabilities that exceed unity. This permeability...
electrophotographyThe photographic recording of an image formed by the alteration in electrical properties of the sensitive materials and...
etching liquidAn acid used to etch the surfaces of particular materials. For glass, hydrofluoric acid is used either as a liquid or a...
dichroism1. In reference to anisotropic materials, the selective absorption of light rays that vibrate in one particular plane...
narcissusA defect in infrared systems that appears as a dark circular area on a displayed image, caused by radiation reflecting into...
triboluminescenceLuminescence that arises from friction and that usually occurs in crystalline materials.
epitaxyA well controlled thin films technique for growing films with good crystal structure in ultra high vacuum environments at...
evaporation coatingCoating carried out in a sealed chamber evacuated by a mechanical pump in series with an oil diffusion pump to a pressure...
laser reflow solderingUse of a laser to solder joints by melting the solder coatings on the mating components.
negative-refraction metamaterialAn artificial material, engineered to have a negative refractive index value, such that light or any other form of...
nondestructive testing (NDT)Any testing method for materials and components that does not damage or destroy the test sample. Some of the methods used...
chromatic aberrationThe lens aberration resulting from the normal increase in refractive index of all common materials toward the blue end of...
dielectricExhibiting the characteristic of materials that are electrical insulators or in which an electric field can be sustained...
hyperspectral imagingMethods for identifying and mapping materials through spectroscopic remote sensing. Also called imaging spectroscopy;...
linear plasticA term for thermoplastic optical materials; that is, those in which the polymer chains remain linear after heating and...
cordA threadlike inclusion within a blank of optical glass. Rarely found in quality optical materials.
acetoneOptic surface cleaning liquid that may be applied to glass, crystal, dielectric and metal surfaces; however, may not be...
didymium glassGlass tinted with mixed oxides of neodymium and praseodymium that, unlike most solid materials, have absorption bands that...
substrate blankMaterials (usually ceramics or other semiconductors) that are molded into approximate forms to use as supports for large...
slurryThe name of the mixture of liquid and grinding or polishing compounds used in processing optical materials.
intrinsic detectorA photodetector composed of a photoconductive material that, when exposed to radiation, conducts without the aid of added...
hermetic bondingThe total fusion and sealing of materials, or usually an enclosure, to ensure that they are airtight.
low-loss fiberOptical fiber that transmits a greater percentage of input light than does high-loss step-index fiber. Low-loss fiber...
spectrosensitometerA sensitometer having a continuously controlled monochromator to measure spectral sensitivity and contrast of photographic...
corrected lensA compound lens, the dimensions and materials of which have been so chosen that the lens is appreciably free of aberrations.
radioactivity detectorAn instrument used to detect radioactive materials: alpha particles or helium nuclei; beta particles or free electrons; and...
pyrolysisA process that employs heat to remove polyimide plastic coatings from silica optical fibers and capillary tubing.
Verdet constantA factor of an equation of the Faraday effect, which is the rotation of the plane of light polarization by transparent...
mirror coatingOne or more thin-film  layers of optical material deposited on a mirror blank/substrate in order to enhance the way...
polymerizationProcess of synthesizing long molecular chain materials (polymers) by reaction of many small molecules (usually thousands)...
plastic opticsThe integration of plastic materials into optical applications. When the materials are refined into lenses, prisms and...
Murty interferometerA form of shearing interferometer that contains a simple wedged (plane-parallel) glass plate with a nonzero optical path...
translucentPertaining to materials having the property of reflecting a part and transmitting a part of the incident radiation.
radiographyA photographic process using x-ray radiation or the g-rays of radioactive materials.
diode-pumped solid-state laserA compact solid-state laser, referred to as DPSSL, created when a laser diode pumps light into either the sides or end of...
sol-gelA gelatinous fluid that can be used as a porous thin-film coating for optical components, including laser beam collimators,...
pitch polishing compoundPitch for polishing mixed with other materials to give it the right viscosity so that it will follow the fine-ground lens...
three-five (III-V)Referring to compound semiconductor materials combining one element that has three valence electrons with one or more that...
planform bondingA manufacturing process used to construct substrates for large optical components. Used with IR materials, planform bonding...
mechanical spliceA fiber splice accomplished by fixtures or materials, rather than by thermal fusion. Index matching material may be applied...
band-to-band photoluminescenceThe emission of a photon by the return of an excited carrier from the conduction band to the valence band of a semiconductor...
petrographic microscopeA microscope equipped with a polarizer, an analyzer and a Bertrand lens to focus on the upper focal plane of the objective....
pulse video thermography (PVT)A noncontact, nondestructive method of measuring defects in thin composite materials, using a xenon flashtube to generate...
enhanced Faraday effectThe occurrence of very large rotations in transparent materials at weak magnetic fields as predicted in the classical...
interstitial absorbing coatingAn absorbing coating medium between fibers, used in some fused fiber optic plates to absorb unwanted light. Such coatings...
flash photographic density filterA filter, partially opaque to near-ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation, that may be made by exposing and processing...
photoelasticityThe process of determining, with the aid of plane-polarized light, the stress distribution in materials under complex...
conduction weldingA type of laser welding of thin materials using a defocused or low-power carbon dioxide laser beam. The energy is absorbed...
dark boxA lightproof box used for storing photosensitive materials.
hybrid optical integrated circuitDevice in which the various circuit elements are fabricated in different substrate materials and then appropriately joined...
Czochralski techniquePopular process for silicon and polycrystalline production that consists of an alteration of the original state of a...
metamaterialA material engineered from artificial matter not found in nature. The artificial makeup and design of metamaterials give...
Fresnel reflectionThe reflection of a portion of light resulting when light is incident upon the surface between materials that have different...
ion-assisted deposition (IAD)A technique for improving the structure density of thin-film coatings by bombarding the growing film with accelerated ions...
material scatteringThe total scattering attributable to the intrinsic properties of the materials through which an optical wave is...
idiochromaticPertaining to the possession of photoelectric characteristics as a result of the properties of the true crystal and not of...

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