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MORE MATERIALS, COATINGSMATERIALS, COATINGS DICTIONARY TERMS
Murty interferometerA form of shearing interferometer that contains a simple wedged (plane-parallel) glass plate with a nonzero optical path...
metallographic polishing machineA small optical polishing machine intended for polishing the surface of a metal specimen before etching for examination...
solar simulationThe simulation of solar radiation in the infrared and ultraviolet spectrum for the analysis of extraterrestrial sunlight and...
negative-refraction metamaterialAn artificial material, engineered to have a negative refractive index value, such that light or any other form of...
phase conjugationThe use of a reflective device, which can be fashioned from a variety of materials including gases, solids, dyes, aerosols,...
intrinsic detectorA photodetector composed of a photoconductive material that, when exposed to radiation, conducts without the aid of added...
isochromatic lines1. Lines of the same color. 2. A term used in photoelastic stress analysis to refer to the interference fringes produced in...
axial gradient technologyA method of designing lasers whereby the laser rod is cut into elliptical discs and cooled by running water over the disc...
cleanroomAn area in which airborne particulates can be monitored and controlled so that given size particles do not exceed a...
two-six (II-VI)Referring to compound semiconductor materials combining one element with two valence electrons and one or more with six....
radioactivity detectorAn instrument used to detect radioactive materials: alpha particles or helium nuclei; beta particles or free electrons; and...
semiconductor laserA semiconductor material which is designed and grown for the efficient production of short wavelength stimulated emission...
cold coatingA method of applying antireflection coatings to optics that avoids the elevated temperatures normally used. A cold coating...
radiation trappingThat process by which radiation spontaneously emitted by a volume of optical materials is resonantly reabsorbed within the...
flash photographic density filterA filter, partially opaque to near-ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation, that may be made by exposing and processing...
safelightFiltered light to which photographic or other photosensitive materials are not responsive; used to illuminate darkrooms when...
laser reflow solderingUse of a laser to solder joints by melting the solder coatings on the mating components.
electrophotographyThe photographic recording of an image formed by the alteration in electrical properties of the sensitive materials and...
plastic opticsThe integration of plastic materials into optical applications. When the materials are refined into lenses, prisms and...
optical ceramicsTransparent glassy and or crystalline structured materials engineered from inorganic, non-metallic materials via various...
sol-gelA gelatinous fluid that can be used as a porous thin-film coating for optical components, including laser beam collimators,...
grenz raysThe soft x-rays used in the industrial radiography of materials having too small a range of densities to produce an image...
diode-pumped solid-state laserA compact solid-state laser, referred to as DPSSL, created when a laser diode pumps light into either the sides or end of...
corrected lensA compound lens, the dimensions and materials of which have been so chosen that the lens is appreciably free of aberrations.
pitch polishing compoundPitch for polishing mixed with other materials to give it the right viscosity so that it will follow the fine-ground lens...
ferroelectricThat property of particular materials that determines that they will be polarized in one direction or the other, or reversed...
guided waveA wave in which energy is focused near a boundary separating materials having different properties. Propagation of the wave...
photoelasticityThe process of determining, with the aid of plane-polarized light, the stress distribution in materials under complex...
cordA threadlike inclusion within a blank of optical glass. Rarely found in quality optical materials.
color aging testA test used to measure the degree of fading of different colored materials, especially those involving organic dyes, which...
chromatic aberrationThe lens aberration resulting from the normal increase in refractive index of all common materials toward the blue end of...
light sectioningTechnique for measuring the volume bulk of materials as they move along a conveyor with an accuracy of better than 1...
Mohs hardnessMaterial hardness scale that is used to characterize the scratch resistance of various materials. This surface hardness...
stress birefringenceBirefringence of materials that is induced or altered by stress fields.
biophotonicsThe technology that deals with the interaction of organic materials with light and other forms of radiant energy whose...
Grittington testA method of determining the abrasion resistance of very hard materials by passing a weighted wiper blade across them in a...
polariscopeA combination of a polarizer and an analyzer that is used to detect birefringence or rotation of the plane of polarization...
quantum dotsAlso known as QDs. Nanocrystals of semiconductor materials that fluoresce when excited by external light sources, primarily...
terahertz radiationElectromagnetic radiation with frequencies between 300 GHz and 10 THz, and existing between regions of the electromagnetic...
infrared spectrophotometerA spectrophotometer having a prism or, more frequently, a grating for the study and recording of infrared spectra. It...
metamaterialA material engineered from artificial matter not found in nature. The artificial makeup and design of metamaterials give...
infrared reflectorAn optical component coated to reflect infrared radiation. Gold, silver and aluminum are typical coating materials.
material scatteringThe total scattering attributable to the intrinsic properties of the materials through which an optical wave is propagating.
resistance heaterA crucible made of electrically resistive material through which a current is passed to heat the material inside, which then...
polymerizationProcess of synthesizing long molecular chain materials (polymers) by reaction of many small molecules (usually thousands)...
incoherent bundleA bundle of filaments of optical glass or other transparent materials that transmit only light, not optical images. The...
evaporation coatingCoating carried out in a sealed chamber evacuated by a mechanical pump in series with an oil diffusion pump to a pressure...
substrate blankMaterials (usually ceramics or other semiconductors) that are molded into approximate forms to use as supports for large...
dielectricExhibiting the characteristic of materials that are electrical insulators or in which an electric field can be sustained...
optical emission spectroscopy (OES)In dry etching, a method of characterizing the composition of solid materials such as metal. Atoms in the OES technique are...
Microheterogeneous SystemsExtremely small organic and inorganic systems of molecules within a substance. In general, systems are colloidal size in...
hybrid optical integrated circuitDevice in which the various circuit elements are fabricated in different substrate materials and then appropriately joined...
didymium glassGlass tinted with mixed oxides of neodymium and praseodymium that, unlike most solid materials, have absorption bands that...
soft coatingA term describing an antireflection coating that may be applied to optics that cannot tolerate the high temperatures usually...
slab-dielectric waveguideA waveguide with a rectangular cross section that is composed entirely of dielectric materials.
neutral density coatingA coating applied to a neutral density glass that is designed to reduce the amount of light evenly across the transmitted...
high-density storageExtensive data storage in the form of bits, with the use of high-resolution photographic materials and optics, and generally...
photomagnetic effectThe direct influence of light on the magnetic susceptibility of particular materials.
low-loss fiberOptical fiber that transmits a greater percentage of input light than does high-loss step-index fiber. Low-loss fiber...
drawing towerA system for fabricating optical fiber, consisting of a furnace that heats the materials, a polymer coating stage, a...
mechanical spliceA fiber splice accomplished by fixtures or materials, rather than by thermal fusion. Index matching material may be applied...
coated opticsOptical elements that have been coated with one or more layers of dielectric, or metallic material. These coatings serve to...
multilayer coatingA coating made up of many layers of material having alternating high and low refractive index. In this way, it is possible...
dielectric coatingA high-reflectance coating consisting of alternating layers of quarter-wave film of a higher refractive index and lower...
Verdet constantA factor of an equation of the Faraday effect, which is the rotation of the plane of light polarization by transparent...
mirror coatingOne or more thin-film  layers of optical material deposited on a mirror blank/substrate in order to enhance the way...
electron-beam recording (EBR)The recording of the information contained in a modulated electron beam onto photographic or silicon resin-coated materials....
polarimeterA polariscope with a half-shade device and an angular scale generally attached to the analyzer. It is used to measure the...
ion-assisted deposition (IAD)A technique for improving the structure density of thin-film coatings by bombarding the growing film with accelerated ions...
calcium tungstateWhite, tetragonal crystals used in the production of luminous coatings.
etching liquidAn acid used to etch the surfaces of particular materials. For glass, hydrofluoric acid is used either as a liquid or a...
petrographic microscopeA microscope equipped with a polarizer, an analyzer and a Bertrand lens to focus on the upper focal plane of the objective....
annealingThe process of heating and slowly cooling a solid material, like glass or metal, to stabilize its thermal, electrical or...
transparent electrophotographic (TEP) filmsImaging materials that generally consist of a polyester base, a transparent electrically conductive layer and an organic...
translucentPertaining to materials having the property of reflecting a part and transmitting a part of the incident radiation.
interstitial absorbing coatingAn absorbing coating medium between fibers, used in some fused fiber optic plates to absorb unwanted light. Such coatings...
band-to-band photoluminescenceThe emission of a photon by the return of an excited carrier from the conduction band to the valence band of a semiconductor...
slurryThe name of the mixture of liquid and grinding or polishing compounds used in processing optical materials.
polarizing coatingA coating made up of particular birefringent materials having polarizing properties. It may be used, in some cases, to...
hyperspectral imagingMethods for identifying and mapping materials through spectroscopic remote sensing. Also called imaging spectroscopy;...
laser lithotripterA laser device intended for crushing urinary tract stones so they can be flushed from the body. Light is introduced via...
amphoteric materialsSubstances that exhibit the characteristics of both acids and bases and are capable of both P- and N-type conductivity.
beta fluorographyThe use of a short-duration electron beam to record high-speed events that occur in microscopic objects made of materials...
adhesiveAn intermolecular substance that serves to hold materials together. Two types are used in the optical industry: one, which...
conduction weldingA type of laser welding of thin materials using a defocused or low-power carbon dioxide laser beam. The energy is absorbed...
advanced photon sourceAn accelerator at the Argonne National Laboratory, providing powerful x-ray beams for materials research applications.
epitaxyA well controlled thin films technique for growing films with good crystal structure in ultra high vacuum environments at...
radiographyA photographic process using x-ray radiation or the g-rays of radioactive materials.
optical materialsMaterials that, by virtue of their optical characteristics (i.e. refractive index, dispersion, etc.), are used in optical...
depletion regionThe region at the PN junction in a semiconductor radiation detector where the potential energies of the two materials create...
photoconductivityThe conductivity increase exhibited by some nonmetallic materials, resulting from the free carriers generated when photon...
microphotofabricationThe formation of microimages for microreduction. The technique is used, for example, in the production of precision reticles...
narcissusA defect in infrared systems that appears as a dark circular area on a displayed image, caused by radiation reflecting into...
pulse video thermography (PVT)A noncontact, nondestructive method of measuring defects in thin composite materials, using a xenon flashtube to generate...
Fresnel reflectionThe reflection of a portion of light resulting when light is incident upon the surface between materials that have different...
dichroism1. In reference to anisotropic materials, the selective absorption of light rays that vibrate in one particular plane...
microphotonicsThe technology of manipulating light on a micro scale. In optical communications, this is usually accomplished using two or...
adiabatic laser colorimetryMethod for studying absorption coefficients of low-loss materials, in which a sample is allowed to come to thermal...
spectrosensitometerA sensitometer having a continuously controlled monochromator to measure spectral sensitivity and contrast of photographic...
glass melting furnaceA furnace used to heat glass materials. It may be a small laboratory-type furnace for small-scale experiments or large...
nondestructive testing (NDT)Any testing method for materials and components that does not damage or destroy the test sample. Some of the methods used...
hermetic bondingThe total fusion and sealing of materials, or usually an enclosure, to ensure that they are airtight.
beta radiationThe high-speed electrons and positrons emitted by radioactive materials.
computer polarization holographyA technique used to store wavefront information on thin polarization information-recordable materials by controlling the...
Czochralski techniquePopular process for silicon and polycrystalline production that consists of an alteration of the original state of a...
darkroomA room that is light-tight, permitting total darkness or illumination with a safelight when working with photosensitive...
acetoneOptic surface cleaning liquid that may be applied to glass, crystal, dielectric and metal surfaces; however, may not be...
refractive index contrastA measure of the relative difference in refractive index between two optical materials. Most commonly used in fiber optics...
three-five (III-V)Referring to compound semiconductor materials combining one element that has three valence electrons with one or more that...
enhanced Faraday effectThe occurrence of very large rotations in transparent materials at weak magnetic fields as predicted in the classical...
idiochromaticPertaining to the possession of photoelectric characteristics as a result of the properties of the true crystal and not of...
PN junctionThe transition boundary between P-type and N-type materials in a semiconductor.
planform bondingA manufacturing process used to construct substrates for large optical components. Used with IR materials, planform bonding...
microdensitometerThe fundamental tool of microdensitometry, the microdensitometer is an instrument used for the precise measurement of...
tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopyA spectroscopic technique that combines the high chemical specificity of Raman scattering and signal sensitivity provided by...
infrared optical materialThe range of materials that, unlike glass, may be used in the infrared. Water-soluble salts, such as cesium iodide, and...
Faraday rotationThe effect discovered by Faraday in 1845 whereby nonoptically active materials or substances become capable of rotating the...
dark boxA lightproof box used for storing photosensitive materials.
sensitometryPrimarily the measurement of photographic sensitivity of certain materials such as photographic film. It refers to the...
ferromagnetismThe properties of certain materials that cause them to have relative permeabilities that exceed unity. This permeability...
computer-generated holographic scanner (CGHS)A phase reflection scanner that eliminates the need for a complex translation device while maintaining a high-energy-density...
linear plasticA term for thermoplastic optical materials; that is, those in which the polymer chains remain linear after heating and...
pyrolysisA process that employs heat to remove polyimide plastic coatings from silica optical fibers and capillary tubing.
sclerometerAn instrument used to test the hardness of various materials. It measures the pressure on a standard point that is necessary...
beam-addressable technologyThe application of reversible writing with a laser beam on particular storage materials. In one method, an amorphous film is...
triboluminescenceLuminescence that arises from friction and that usually occurs in crystalline materials.
spatterOf evaporative coatings, a condition resulting when small chunks of material fly from the hot crucible onto the substrate...
nanostructured glassA unique glass made up of nano-structured materials to create millimeter sized monolithic glass space-variant polarization...
electron-beam evaporationA method of thin-film deposition in which electrons boiled off a heated cathode are used to melt the coating material. If a...
nanotechnologyThe use of atoms, molecules and molecular-scale structures to enhance existing technology and develop new materials and...

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