A hydrothermal quartz growth technique for manufacturing large-diameter wave plates and other kinds of polarizing optics from cultured quartz crystal has been developed by Sawyer Technical Materials LLC. The process uses X- rather than Z-plate seeds, because wave plates are typically X-cut orientations. Wave plates of up to 150 mm in diameter can be manufactured, providing a large light application surface. The hydrothermal growth process involves recrystallization from solution onto seed plates under high-temperature (350 °C), high-pressure (13,000 lb psi) conditions. Nutrient material is placed in the dissolving chamber of the autoclave, and quartz seed crystals are hung in the growing chamber.