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Photonics Handbook

Vibration Control: Limiting Mechanical NoiseVibration Control: Limiting Mechanical Noise
MKS/Newport
In general, there are three common approaches to reducing mechanical excitation of photonic systems. The first is identifying the sources of vibration and implementing ways to eliminate or reduce...
Optical Delay Lines: Key to Time-Resolved MeasurementsOptical Delay Lines: Key to Time-Resolved Measurements
MKS/Newport
One of the most critical elements of any time-resolved spectroscopy and dynamics experiment is the optical delay line. A typical optical delay line consists of a retroreflector or folding mirrors on...
The Photonics Spectrum Reference ChartThe Photonics Spectrum Reference Chart
To order a copy of the latest printed version of the Photonics Spectrum Reference Chart, visit our bookstore at www.Photonics.com/wallchart.
Laser Diodes: Specification GuidelinesLaser Diodes: Specification Guidelines
Intense Ltd.
While some design engineers know exactly what they need from their laser diode, others may choose a partner to navigate what can be a complex development process. Laser diode manufacturers know which...
Photonic Component Manufacturing: Moving Toward AutomationPhotonic Component Manufacturing: Moving Toward Automation
Bruce W. Hueners and Michael K. Formica, Palomar Technologies
Manufacturing the laser diode is complicated by the existence of multiple proprietary techniques and intellectual property barriers together with complex device physics and unique materials. ...
Coefficients of Expansion and Densities of Optical MaterialsCoefficients of Expansion and Densities of Optical Materials
Material Coefficient of Expansion(×10-6 per °C) Density (lbs/cubic in.) Aluminum 23.8 0.10 Brass (cast) 18.8 0.30 Carbon (diamond) 1.2 0.25 Carbon (graphite) 7.9 - Copper 16.2 0.32...
Camera Resolution: Combining Detector and Optics PerformanceCamera Resolution: Combining Detector and Optics Performance
Gerald C. Holst, JCD Publishing
Camera resolution depends upon the optical blur diameter and the detector size. Schade combined these to create an equivalent resolution that is a function of Fλ/d where F is the focal ratio,...
Quantifying Light: Intensity, Uniformity Hold the KeyQuantifying Light: Intensity, Uniformity Hold the Key
Steven Giamundo, Fiberoptics Technology, Inc.
Intensity and uniformity can be described using different physical attributes, which makes interpreting requirements somewhat confusing. This article intends to provide an explanation and serve as a...
Lens Aberrations: Avoiding Defects in ImageryLens Aberrations: Avoiding Defects in Imagery
Bruce H. Walker, Walker Associates
A lens collects light from a point on an object and focuses it to a corresponding conjugate point on an image. Under most conditions, the lens fails at this task because of some error in the...
Units of the Electromagnetic SpectrumUnits of the Electromagnetic Spectrum
Common Lens FormulasCommon Lens Formulas
Radiation Tolerances: Effects on CID Imaging DevicesRadiation Tolerances: Effects on CID Imaging Devices
Tony Chapman, Thermo Fisher Scientific, CIDTEC Cameras & Imagers
Like other CTDs, the CID imager uses hundreds of thousands (up to 4 million) pixel elements to capture optical images, and converts the light into an electronic charge which may be displayed on a...
Gaussian and Newtonian Thin Lens FormulasGaussian and Newtonian Thin Lens Formulas
Equation (1) is known as the Gaussian form of the lens equation, after the mathematician Karl F. Gauss. Equation (2), first derived by Sir Isaac Newton, is the Newtonian form of a lens equation. The...
Optical Materials: Transmission and Refractive IndexOptical Materials: Transmission and Refractive Index
Detector Arrays: Taming the Irregular Shape ProblemDetector Arrays: Taming the Irregular Shape Problem
Gerald C. Holst, JCD Publishing
If we were to estimate the output of a CCD or thermal camera, we would typically draw an image over the detectors, aligning the image with the detector axes. We show it this way because it’s...
Broadband Spectrophotometry: A Fast, Simple, Accurate ToolBroadband Spectrophotometry: A Fast, Simple, Accurate Tool
Iris Bloomer, n&k Technology, Inc.; Rebecca Mirsky, Al Shugart International
Designing devices that incorporate ultrathin films is an important means of enhancing yields. However, characterizing ultrathin films provides a challenge for mainstream metrology tools such as...
Cleaning Optics: Choosing the Best MethodCleaning Optics: Choosing the Best Method
CVI Laser Optics
Optics can be contaminated in many ways. Contamination can be kept to a minimum by returning the optics to their case after use or by covering the optics for protection from the outside environment....
High-Speed Video: Selecting a Slow-Motion Imaging SystemHigh-Speed Video: Selecting a Slow-Motion Imaging System
Andrew Bridges, Photron USA, Inc.
There is a growing market for imaging systems that provides an immediate, slow-motion view of a process that allows one to see events that happen too quickly for the human eye to perceive or...
Filters: Glossary, Equations, ParametersFilters: Glossary, Equations, Parameters
JDSU
Attentuation Region (or Blocking) The spectral region over which very low transmission is required. Attenuation requirements are generally specified in percent transmission over a given spectral...
Digital Still Cameras: The Changing Face of ImagingDigital Still Cameras: The Changing Face of Imaging
Morio Onoe, Professor Emeritus, University of Tokyo
The digital camera represents an integration of optics, mechanics and electronics consisting of three layers (Figures 1a, b and c). The top and the middle layers are printed circuit boards (PCBs),...
Photometric UnitsPhotometric Units
Photometric Units SI Units Quantity Unit Luminous flux lumen lm Luminous intensity candela cd Luminance cd/m2 Illuminance lm/m2 lx Non-SI Units Luminous Intensity ...
Radiometry: A Simplified Description of Light MeasurementRadiometry: A Simplified Description of Light Measurement
Angelo V. Arecchi, Labsphere, Inc.
Radiometry involves several activities. The two most common are the description and measurement of optical radiation, and, starting with the knowledge of some aspects of optical radiation at one...
Mirrors: Coating Choice Makes a DifferenceMirrors: Coating Choice Makes a Difference
JDSU
The basic difference between the household mirror and the optical mirror is that one is coated on the back surface and the other is coated on the front. For optical applications, a front-surface...
Microassembly: Minimizing Error and Maximizing PrecisionMicroassembly: Minimizing Error and Maximizing Precision
Bruce Fiala, Wright Industries
Progressive assembly operations such as guiding, gluing and bonding often take place around a static package in three-dimensional space. Integrating the different mechanical systems to ensure that...
Connectors and Splices: Correct Alignment Spells SuccessConnectors and Splices: Correct Alignment Spells Success
Paula Trindell, Tyco Electronics
Just as an electronic connector provides a pluggable connection between electronic circuits, a fiber optic connector provides an optical one. The goal is joining a fiber to a transmitter, receiver or...
Spectroscopy: The Tools of the TradeSpectroscopy: The Tools of the Trade
Dr. John R. Gilchrist, Clyde HSI
All optical spectrometry techniques rely on the measurement of radiant power. The configuration of the instrument varies based on the measurement technique: absorption, emission, luminescence, or...
Optical System Design: Keeping the Coatings in MindOptical System Design: Keeping the Coatings in Mind
JDSU
An optical coating engineer is frequently confronted with a difficult specification for a coating. Often the difficulty in the specification results from the particular form of the optical system. If...
Infrared Spectral Selection: It Begins with the DetectorInfrared Spectral Selection: It Begins with the Detector
Austin Richards, FLIR Systems, Commercial Vision Systems
Spectral selection is a powerful tool that enhances conventional imaging tremendously. Most imaging systems, including the human eye, are designed to image light over a broad range of the spectrum....
Heat Control and Lighting Systems Design: Optical Coatings Separate Light from HeatHeat Control and Lighting Systems Design: Optical Coatings Separate Light from Heat
Eric Krisl, Deposition Sciences Inc.
Controlling and minimizing heat output is desirable in most lighting applications. For example, conventional incandescent light sources are very inefficient with only a small portion of the...
Tunable Lasers: Generating Wavelengths from the UV Through the IRTunable Lasers: Generating Wavelengths from the UV Through the IR
Ian Read, MKS/Spectra-Physics
Applications facilitated by tunable lasers fall into two categories: situations in which one or more discrete wavelengths are not available from any single- or multiline fixed-wavelength laser, or...
Imaging Colorimetry: Accuracy in Display and Light Source MetrologyImaging Colorimetry: Accuracy in Display and Light Source Metrology
Ron Rykowski and Hubert Kostal, Radiant Imaging, Inc.
The market for flat panel displays (FPDs) has undergone tremendous growth, driven mostly by increased demand for televisions, cell phones, computers, digital cameras and MP3 players. Similarly,...
Diamond Machining: Ultraprecision Machine TechnologyDiamond Machining: Ultraprecision Machine Technology
Engineering Staff, AMETEK Precitech, Inc.
Ultraprecision machining can be defined in general terms as the removal of material from a substrate utilizing a machine tool that operates at a resolution of 10 nm (0.4 μin.) or less. The...
Acousto-Optic DevicesAcousto-Optic Devices
ACOUSTO-OPTIC SCANNING DEVICES: CHARACTERISTICS MODULATORS Material Bandwidth (MHz) Rise Time (ns) Acousto Input Power (W) (Saturation) Material Wavelength Range...
Image Processing: Turning Digital Data into Useful InformationImage Processing: Turning Digital Data into Useful Information
William Silver, Cognex Corp.
Images are produced by many means: cameras, x-ray machines, electron microscopes, radar and ultrasound. They are used in the entertainment, medical, scientific and business industries; for security...
Excimer Lasers: Photonic Stamps with Micron ResolutionExcimer Lasers: Photonic Stamps with Micron Resolution
Coherent, Inc.
Excimers are pulsed gas lasers that deliver high output power and pulse energies in the ultraviolet and deep-ultraviolet wavelengths. This enables them to power applications that cannot be supported...
Detectors: CCDs for Life-Science ApplicationsDetectors: CCDs for Life-Science Applications
Butch Moomaw, Hamamatsu Corporation, Systems Div.
Since their invention in the late 1960s, charge-coupled devices, also called CCDs, have found widespread use in imaging applications. Electronic cameras based on CCD technology are used in...
Image Intensification: The Technology of Night VisionImage Intensification: The Technology of Night Vision
Harry P. Montoro, ITT Night Vision
Image intensification, the basis of night vision, is a complex conversion of energy particles that occurs within a vacuum tube. An image-intensifier system works by collecting photons through an...
OTDRs: Finding the Weak Spots in Fiber LinksOTDRs: Finding the Weak Spots in Fiber Links
Michel Leclerc and Vincent Racine, EXFO
An optical time-domain reflectometer sends short pulses of light into a fiber and measures its reflections as a function of time. The delay of these reflections to the detector as well as their...
Standard CIE IlluminantsStandard CIE Illuminants
Optical Coating: Materials and Deposition TechnologyOptical Coating: Materials and Deposition Technology
CERAC, Inc., a subsidiary of Williams Advanced Materials; technical assistance from Pellicori Optical Consulting
Optical coatings are deposited as thin-film multilayers of a variety of materials using specific deposition techniques. Coatings are applied to optical components that are intended for use at...
Rules of ThumbRules of Thumb
Photonics Rules of Thumb Scientists and engineers tend to want to answer simple relational questions with a blackboard covered with equations, even when questioners just want a rough estimate to...
Beryllium Mirrors: Refinements Enable New ApplicationsBeryllium Mirrors: Refinements Enable New Applications
Vladimir Vudler and Peter Richard, Hardric Laboratories, Inc.
With a specific gravity of 1.85 g/cm3, beryllium is the lightest metal that is workable. It is 45 percent lighter than aluminum and approximately five times as stiff. Its stiffness to weight ratio...
Positioning System Performance: Understanding the RulesPositioning System Performance: Understanding the Rules
MKS/Newport
Abbe Error — Linear off-axis errors introduced by angular deviations coupled to a moment arm at the point of interest on stage mounted devices (θ in Figure 1). The effect of Abbe error...
Density to Percent Transmission Conversion TableDensity to Percent Transmission Conversion Table
Density – % Transmission (Opacity x % Transmission = 100) Density Opacity %T 0 1.0 100 0.1 1.3 80 0.2 1.6 63 0.3 2.0 50 0.4 2.5 40 0.5 3.2 32 0.6 4.0 25 0.7 5.0 20 0.8 6.3 16 0.9 8.0 13...
PressurizationPressurization
Laser Perforation: The Diffractive Beamsplitter AdvantageLaser Perforation: The Diffractive Beamsplitter Advantage
Moshe Bril, Holo/Or Ltd.
The basic setup in laser perforation includes a pulsed laser, a lens and either a moving mirror, a rotating web or both. Each laser pulse creates a hole in the material. During the blank time in...
Detectors: The Charge Injection AlternativeDetectors: The Charge Injection Alternative
Tony Chapman, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., CIDTEC Cameras & Imagers
Charged-injection device imagers are metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) detectors that can be fabricated using PMOS, NMOS and CMOS integrated circuit technology, and may be configured as a...
Nd:YAG Lasers: Standing the Test of TimeNd:YAG Lasers: Standing the Test of Time
Quantel USA
The ubiquitous Nd:YAG laser has played many roles over the years. For the military, it has provided rangefinding and target designation capabilities. When used with nonlinear optics or as a pump...
Laser Beam Measurement: Slit-Based Profilers for Pulsed BeamsLaser Beam Measurement: Slit-Based Profilers for Pulsed Beams
Allen M. Cary, Photon Inc.
Measuring pulsed-beam lasers has generally required the use of a CCD array profiler. This is a reasonable solution for low-power lasers in the UV and visible wavelength range, but these require...
Component Choices: Avoiding Tolerancing MistakesComponent Choices: Avoiding Tolerancing Mistakes
Warren J. Smith, Rockwell Collins Optronics
To the novice or casual user of optics, the acquisition of an optical system can be a very difficult experience. Failure to understand the ground rules can result in unnecessarily high cost, late...

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