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Photonics Handbook

Polygonal Laser Scanners: Fitting the Elements to the TaskPolygonal Laser Scanners: Fitting the Elements to the Task
Glenn E. Stutz, Lincoln Laser Co.
Reading and writing systems for polygonal scanners differ in the use of the scanner. However, many performance characteristics are similar for both. In writing applications, a light source, usually a...
Optical Objective Systems: A Schematic GuideOptical Objective Systems: A Schematic Guide
Warren J. Smith, Rockwell Collins Optronics
Simple Meniscus Lens The simple meniscus lens is almost universally used in inexpensive cameras. To get an image of good quality it must be used with a separate aperture stop, reducing the...
Beamsplitters: A Guide for DesignersBeamsplitters: A Guide for Designers
CVI Melles Griot
Plate beamsplitters Plate beamsplitters consist of a thin plate of optical crown glass with a different type of coating deposited on each side. The first surface is coated with an all-dielectric...
Global Optimization: A Tool for Successful DesignGlobal Optimization: A Tool for Successful Design
Thomas G. Kuper and Thomas I. Harris, Optical Research Associates
Some efforts in global optimization research for optical design center around probabilistic methods such as global search. While promising for small problems with few variables, these methods...
Optical Components: Finding Your Way Through the MazeOptical Components: Finding Your Way Through the Maze
CVI Melles Griot
Lenses come in a variety of shapes, sizes and materials. They can be made of a single piece of glass or have multiple elements; their surfaces can be spherical, aspheric or cylindrical; they can be...
Laser Applications TablesLaser Applications Tables
Beam Diagnostics: Meeting the Need for High QualityBeam Diagnostics: Meeting the Need for High Quality
Coherent, Inc.
For any discussion of laser beam diagnostics, it is first necessary to define some terms that characterize beam properties. Broad definitions can include measurements of laser energy or power,...
Solid-State Lasers: Lower Noise Means Higher PerformanceSolid-State Lasers: Lower Noise Means Higher Performance
Kenneth Ibbs and Alex Laymon, DPSS Lasers, Inc.
Many linear materials proceseqsing applications call for lasers with continuous-wave (CW) output. For example, early stereolithography systems were based on CW lasers such as argon-ion or HeCd. To...
Laser Scanning Systems: Optimizing PerformanceLaser Scanning Systems: Optimizing Performance
Yuhong Huang and Eric Ulmer, General Scanning
To obtain optimal performance from a laser scanning system, the system integrator must carefully weigh the effects of each component and consider how best to implement hardware and software to...
CO<SUB>2</SUB> Lasers: The Industrial WorkhorseCO2 Lasers: The Industrial Workhorse
Thorsten Frauenpreiss, Rofin-Sinar Laser GmbH
In the three decades since its introduction, the CO2 laser has become the workhorse of industrial lasers. Today it is available in a range of designs and sizes with output powers of 20 kW and more....
Spectroscopy: Mastering the TechniquesSpectroscopy: Mastering the Techniques
Dr. John R. Gilchrist, Clyde HSI
The scope of optical spectroscopic instrumentation is indeed very broad. Many analytical methods rely on the interaction of radiation with matter and are often described in the context of quantum and...
SWIR Imaging: An Industrial Processing ToolSWIR Imaging: An Industrial Processing Tool
Sensors Unlimited Inc., A Collins Aerospace company
Imaging has long been used in industrial processes to measure, monitor, control, or otherwise manage the production of goods. The challenge to the process designer is to develop a tool that captures...
Machine Vision Lighting: A First-Order ConsiderationMachine Vision Lighting: A First-Order Consideration
SCHOTT North America, Inc., Fiber Optics
In the beginning, automated inspection focused on the camera and optics, the algorithms, the interface hardware and the processor. Only rarely was attention paid to the lighting system or lighting...
Spectrum Analysis for DWDM: New Instruments Meet the ChallengeSpectrum Analysis for DWDM: New Instruments Meet the Challenge
Francis Audet, EXFO
As system and cable installers try to optimize their links, the preferred method has become high-speed DWDM. This demand for bandwidth has led to the development of new test and measurement...
Polarization in Fiber Systems: Squeezing out More BandwidthPolarization in Fiber Systems: Squeezing out More Bandwidth
Steve Yao, General Photonics Corp.
As bit rates increase to meet expanding demand, systems have become increasingly sensitive to polarization-related impairments. These include polarization mode dispersion (PMD) in optical fibers,...
Adaptive Optics: Taming Atmospheric TurbulenceAdaptive Optics: Taming Atmospheric Turbulence
Tom Gonsiorowski, Adaptive Optics Associates, Inc., a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Northrop Grumman Systems
To Isaac Newton the problem was clear, and in 1704 he realized the effects of atmospheric turbulence on image formation. Just as heat waves shimmering above a hot patch of ground can distort our...
Digital Cameras: Smaller Pixels for Higher ResolutionDigital Cameras: Smaller Pixels for Higher Resolution
Albert Theuwissen, DALSA Professional Imaging
In the search for ever-higher pixel counts for the digital still camera, it is clear that, if chip size remains constant, then “more pixels” means “smaller pixels.” The...
Particle Image Velocimetry: Basics, Developments and TechniquesParticle Image Velocimetry: Basics, Developments and Techniques
M. Kelnberger, InnoLas GmbH; G. Schwitzgebel, Universität Mainz
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an experimental tool in fluid mechanics and aerodynamics. The basic principle involves photographic recording of the motion of microscopic particles that follow...
NSOM: Discovering New WorldsNSOM: Discovering New Worlds
M. Kovar, Midako A. Nohe, N.O. Petersen and P.R. Norton, University of Western Ontario
NSOM is suitable for studies on the mesoscopic scale (several tens to hundreds of molecular dimensions). It has become an important tool in research and applications of semiconductors, organic layers...
Polarization Mode Dispersion: Concepts and MeasurementPolarization Mode Dispersion: Concepts and Measurement
Paul Hernday, Fiber Optic Measurement Training and Consulting
There are three fundamentally different dispersive phenomena in optical fiber, of which polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is the most complex. In digital multimode fiber systems, a light pulse...
Colorimetry: How to Measure Color DifferencesColorimetry: How to Measure Color Differences
Konica Minolta Sensing Americas Inc.
The use and importance of colorimetry has grown in unison with the increase of global manufacturing and processing. When plastic automotive trim produced on one continent must match a painted metal...
Semiconductor Lasers: An Overview of Commercial DevicesSemiconductor Lasers: An Overview of Commercial Devices
Laser diodes vary widely in their wavelengths, powers, spectra and beam quality. Yet they share two fundamental components with all other lasers: an optical amplifier and a resonator that confines...
Characterizing High-Speed Transmitters: The Emphasis Is on WaveformsCharacterizing High-Speed Transmitters: The Emphasis Is on Waveforms
Greg D. Le Cheminant, Agilent Technologies
An indicator of how well the entire system performs is a measurement called bit-error-ratio (BER). Acceptable BERs range from one error per billion to one per trillion bits transmitted. It is rare...
Photomultipliers: Low-Light, High-Speed SpecialistsPhotomultipliers: Low-Light, High-Speed Specialists
Ken Kaufmann, Hamamatsu Corporation
The applications where rapid detection of light is a must are many. They include a wide variety: semiconductor inspection, gene sequencing, oil well logging and high-energy physics. The reasons for...
The VCSEL Advantage: Increased Power, Efficiency Bring New ApplicationsThe VCSEL Advantage: Increased Power, Efficiency Bring New Applications
L. Arthur D’Asaro, Jean-Francois Seurin and James D. Wynn, Princeton Optronics, Inc.
Unlike an edge emitter, a VCSEL has a maximum operating power that is not limited by catastrophic optical damage of the exit aperture because its aperture is larger and its PN junction does not...

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