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52 terms

Photonics Dictionary: X

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1. In a plane Cartesian coordinate system, the horizontal axis, or axis in the left to right direction. 2. In a quartz crystal structure, the refrence axis.
Two flat parallel electrodes that are vertically mounted alongside each other in a cathode-ray tube and produce horizontal deflection of the beam when a difference of potential is applied between...
Radiography using the emission of x-rays to form an image of the structure penetrated by the radiation.
x-ray absorbing filter
A window made of glass containing a high percentage of lead or other dense material known to absorb x-rays readily.
x-ray analysis trial
The testing by hypothesizing a likely crystal structure, computing a test x-ray diffraction pattern and comparing this to the observed pattern to evaluate a crystal structure.
x-ray analysis
The series of processes used to identify and evaluate crystal structure by using crystalline solids to diffract x-rays. In the Laue method, radiation of a wide range of wavelengths is transmitted by...
x-ray astronomy
The study of the celestial bodies, relative to x-ray emission. Satellites launched to study x-ray sources have revealed many new classes of galactic and extragalactic sources, as well as the...
x-ray crystal spectrometer
An instrument that measures the wavelengths of an x-ray spectrum by the diffraction of x-rays from a crystal with a given lattice spacing.
x-ray crystallography
The study of the arrangement of atoms in a crystal by means of x-rays.
x-ray detection
The collection and detection of x-rays by virtue of their ionizing properties. The ionization may be perceived directly by a gas-filled ionization chamber, photographically, or by correlating...
x-ray detector
One of various types of fluorescent screens used to detect x-ray radiation. Photographic film is mildly sensitive to x-rays, but much more sensitive to light. Hence, in photographing x-ray...
x-ray diffraction
The bending of x-rays by the regular layers of molecules in a crystal acting like a very small diffraction grating. The diffraction pattern so obtained and recorded on film provides a means for...
x-ray diffractometer
An instrument that uses a crystal to diffract x-rays for the measurement of the intensities of the diffracted rays.
x-ray film
A film or plate that is usually coated on both sides with a very fast emulsion that is sensitive to x-rays, and used to record x-ray diffraction patterns photographically.
x-ray hardness
The penetrating capacity of x-rays that is an inverse function of the wavelength.
x-ray image intensifier
An image intensifier that consists of an evacuated tube with a large input phosphor screen at one end. The phosphor screen is in contact with a light-sensitive photocathode that emits electrons....
x-ray image spectrography
Irradiation of a cylindrical crystal with an x-ray beam resulting in Bragg diffraction that produces a slightly enlarged image.
x-ray lithography
A method of projecting integrated circuit patterns on a silicon wafer using x-ray wavelengths focused through a special mask.
x-ray micrography -> microradiography
Radiographic recording and enhancement of the micoscopic details within the structure of thin specimens at a high magnification. Also known as x-ray micrography
x-ray microprobe analysis
The method of acquiring characteristic x-ray spectra from microscopic samples by use of the combination of a scanning electron microscope and x-ray spectroscopy.
x-ray optics
The study of the physics of x-rays, where the x-rays exhibit properties similar to those of lightwaves. Also called Roentgen optics.
x-ray phase contrast microscopy
Used for high-resolution surface study with subnanometer resolution. XRIM uses interfacial phase contrast with application of hard x-rays over elementary surface structures availing the observation...
x-ray shadow microscope -> projection x-ray microscope
A microscope that uses an extremely fine x-ray focal point to produce an enlarged photographic image of a sample. Also known as an x-ray shadow microscope.
x-ray source
A material or system that emits x-rays.
x-ray spectrogram
A chart of an x-ray diffraction pattern.
x-ray spectrograph
An instrument that is used to chart x-ray diffraction patterns, such as an x-ray spectrometer having photographic or other recording implements.
x-ray spectrometer
An instrument designed to produce an x-ray spectrum of a material as an aid in identifying it. This technique is particularly useful when the material cannot be broken down physically.
x-ray streak camera
A diagnostic instrument that uses a photocathode design to see a broad range of x-ray radiation by streaking the photographic image continuously in time. It produces time- and space-resolved...
x-ray tube target
Also known as an anticathode. An electrode or electrode section that is focused upon by an electron beam and that emits x-rays.
x-ray vacuum
The pressure in the gas region of an x-ray tube that has been reduced below 0.1 mm, the pressure necessary for the tube.
x-ray density probe
x-ray emission gauge
A rare gas used in small high-pressure arc lamps to produce a high-intensity source of light closely resembling the color quality of daylight.
xenon arc
The arc formed when the rare gas xenon is excited electrically and emits a brilliant white light. Xenon is used to fill electronic and stroboscopic flashlamps, and also large discharge tubes for...
xenon arc photocoagulator
An instrument for eye surgery that directs intense xenon arc light through the transparent cornea lens to the retina where absorption by the pigment epithelium and the choroid produces heat and...
xenon flashtube
A high-intensity source of incoherent white light in which a capacitor is discharged through a tube of xenon gas; often used as a source of pumping radiation for various optically excited lasers.
A printing process of electrostatic electrophotography that uses a photoconductive insulating medium, in conjunction with infrared, visible or ultraviolet radiation, to produce latent...
A printing process of electrostatic electrophotography that uses a photoconductive insulating medium, in conjunction with x-rays or gamma rays, to produce latent electrostatic-charge patterns for...
x-ray energy spectroscopy
irradiated cross-linked polyolefin
x-ray multimirror
external modulator
crystal oscillator
x-ray fluorescent spectrometer
x-ray laser
x-ray projection microscope
extreme ultraviolet
XY recorder
A recorder that plots, on a chart, the interaction between two variables, not directly representing time.

Photonics DictionaryX

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