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A lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a miniaturized device that integrates various laboratory functions and capabilities onto a single, compact chip. Also known as microfluidic devices, lab-on-a-chip systems are...
Label-free refers to a technique or method that does not require the use of additional labels, tags, or markers to detect or identify specific components or entities. In various scientific and...
ladar -> lidar
light detection and ranging
ladder diagram
A diagram that shows actual component signals and the basic wiring configuration of a relay logic circuit.
A term applied to an electric charge image in a camera tube that remains for a period of a few frames after its initial formation.
lambda services
Term for service offered by a vendor who leases a particular wavelength to a customer through DWDM technology. Lambda services are often associated with the leasing of dark fiber.
Lambert's absorption law
Transmittance of a solution, or internal transmittance of a transparent solid, is an exponential function of the thickness of the layer.
Lambert's cosine law
Flux per unit solid angle leaving a surface in any direction is proportional to the cosine of the angle between that direction and the normal to the surface. A material that obeys Lambert's cosine...
A unit of luminance equal to 1/p candela per square centimeter. (l).
Obeying Lambert's cosine law.
lambertian emitter
An optical source that has a luminous distribution that is uniform for all directions.
lambertian source plane
In optics, a plane that emits a flux proportional to the cosine of the angle of the normal; dense opal glass is an example.
lambertian surface
A perfectly diffusing surface; the intensity of the light emanating in a given direction from any small surface component is proportional to the cosine of the angle of the normal to the surface. The...
lamellar grating
A grating with ridges of rectangular cross section, generally equal in width to the space between. This type of grating may be used as a beam divider.
Composed of layers.
lamp -> light source
The generic term applied to all sources of visible radiation from burning matter to ionized vapors and lasers, regardless of the degree of excitation.
lamp housing
A device designed to concentrate and direct a light source by enclosing the source in it and using a concave reflector to direct the light through its only opening.
In a CD-ROM disc, the reflective area between nonreflective pits representing a binary-language "off'' as opposed to the "on'' signals of the land-to-pit and pit-to-land transitions.
landolt band
A dark band that may appear in the field of crossed Nicol prisms with a powerful source such as the sun because the light is not strictly parallel and is not extinguished immediately.
landolt ring
A broken circle used as the test object in distinguishing visual acuity. The width of the gap in the circle is equal to the breadth of the black line and one-fifth the circle diameter. Also known as...
Langmuir dark space
A nonluminous area around a negatively charged probe that is inserted into the positive column of an arc or glow discharge.
Langmuir-Blodgett technique
A method of depositing crystalline films one molecular layer at a time, by dipping the substrate into water containing a polymer that forms a single layer of molecular chains on the surface. This...
A metal tool used to grind lenses with loose abrasive (see diamond cutting tool). The functional surface of the lap is carefully formed to be opposite the curve to be produced on the glass (concave...
An endoscopic surgical instrument that includes a channel for the introduction of supplementary instruments.
Laplacian edge enhancement
Edge enhancement technique that accentuates all edge details in an image without discriminating as to spatial orientation.
1. The process of wearing down the surface of a softer material by rubbing it under pressure against the surface of a harder material that has been formed in the shape opposite to that desired on the...
lapping and polishing services
Lapping and polishing services involve specialized processes used to improve the surface finish and dimensional accuracy of components to meet specific requirements or standards. These services are...
large-core fiber
Optical fiber with a large core, often a step-index fiber; "large'' is at times defined as greater than 85 µm.
laser ablation
Laser ablation is a process that involves the removal or erosion of material from a target surface using laser energy. This technique is widely used in various scientific, industrial, and medical...
laser absorption spectroscopy
An experimental research technique by which absorbed or unabsorbed radiation is analyzed in order to characterize and determine material properties, concentration as well as behavior under the...
laser active elements
Laser active elements typically refers to the substances or materials within a laser system that play a critical role in the amplification of light through the process of stimulated emission. These...
laser anemometry
The process by which laser emission is used in measuring fluid velocity and, more specifically, the detection of air and wind velocity.The laser technique measures the amount of frequency shift...
laser annealing
Laser annealing is a process that involves using a laser beam to heat and modify the microstructure of a material, typically a thin film or surface layer, with the objective of improving its...
laser biostimulation -> biostimulation
The action of a biological system responding to a single or multiple coherent particles of light produced from a laser source. Examples of laser biostimulation include: retinal interaction of light...
laser cavity
A laser cavity, also known as an optical cavity or resonator, is a fundamental component of a laser system. It is a confined region or space where light undergoes multiple reflections, leading to the...
laser ceilometer
A device used for measuring the height of clouds from a position on the ground. Measurement technique uses a vertically directed beam stably positioned such that scattered radiation may be detected...
laser cell sorting
A moving group of fluid-suspended biological species directed through separate channels by which the population is isolated. The isolated or purified group is observed by applying a laser detection...
laser cloud mapper
A scanning laser radar system applied to transmission and concentration analysis in three dimensions of clouds as well as aerosols and other particles within atmospheric systems.
laser communications
laser confocal microscope
laser contact tip
A surgical device used to deliver laser light. Specifically,contact tips are made with artificially grown sapphire which is precisely cut to an orientation which permits efficient light transmission....
laser controlled area
Area in which laser operation occurs and therefore safety requirements are met and regulations are implemented. Lasers operated within a laser controlled area may vary with energy and wavelength.
laser cooling
Laser cooling is a technique used to reduce the temperature of a material or a collection of atoms or molecules by using laser light. It is based on the principle of selective absorption and emission...
laser crystal
A laser crystal, also known as an active medium or gain medium, is a solid-state material used in the construction of lasers. The primary function of the laser crystal is to amplify light by...
laser damage
A natural or mechanical system adversely affected by the influence of laser radiation. During laser damage the common effect of the radiation on the surface of interest is heat accumulation due to...
laser damage threshold
The laser damage threshold refers to the maximum level of laser intensity that a material can withstand without experiencing damage. It is a critical parameter in laser applications and is...
laser dazzle system
Visible laser radiation, often optically expanded and collimated, used to induced temporary blindness from within a walking distance of an impending target. Laser dazzle systems may be in a handheld...
laser designator
A laser device used to establish a location or target usually for detection by an impact source e.g. missiles and guided munitions. Laser designation sources utilize a system configuration which is...
laser desorption
A process of forming ions within a given molecular species by incident laser light. The molecular species may remain intact, without fragmentation, during soft desorption whereas molecular samples...
laser detector
Device that operates by interaction of incident radiation with semiconductor based material in order to produce an electrical signal or by other means, to interact with calorimetric devices which...

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