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Photonics Dictionary: I

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ion
An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons and, as a result, carries a negative or positive charge.
ion emission
The ejecting of ions from the surface of a material.
ion exchange technique
A method of fabricating a graded-index optical waveguide by means of an ion exchange process.
ion laser
A laser in which the transition involved in stimulated emission of radiation takes place between two levels of an ionized gas. The gases are electrically excited in a container called a plasma tube,...
ion pair
Two oppositely charged particles.
ion-assisted deposition
A technique for improving the structure density of thin-film coatings by bombarding the growing film with accelerated ions of oxygen and argon. The kinetic energy then dissipates in the film, causing...
ion-beam sputtering
Ion-beam sputtering (IBS) is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique used for depositing thin films onto substrates. It involves bombarding a target material with a beam of energetic ions,...
ionic focusing
Also known as gas focusing. The introduction of an inert gas into a cathode-ray tube for the concentration of the electron beam. The gas molecules are ionized by the electrons, producing a core of...
ionization chamber
A closed vessel with electrodes of different potentials that is used to determine how much ionization took place in a gas after its exposure to x-rays or radioactive emissions.
ionization gauge
A type of radiation detector that depends on the ionization produced in a gas by the passage of a charged particle through it. One of the best known is the Geiger-Müller counter, although cloud...
ionization potential
The amount of energy required for a particular kind of atom to remove an electron to infinite distance. The ionization potential is usually expressed in volts.
ionization spectrometer
Also known as the Bragg spectrometer. A system used for the x-ray analysis of crystal structure. In the instrument, a homogeneous beam of x-rays is directed on the known face of a crystal and the...
ionizing radiation
Generally, any radiation that can form ions, either directly or indirectly, while traveling through a substance.
ionography
An electroradiographic process that uses ionization of air by x-rays as a basis for forming electrostatic images.
ionosphere
The gas of charged particles that begins approximately 50 km above the surface of the Earth and contains a sufficient quantity of electrons and ions to affect the propagation of radio waves.
IP
indium phosphide
IPD
image photocounting distribution; interpupillary distance
IPP
imaging photopolarimeter
IR
infrared
IRAMS
infrared automatic mass screening
IRAS
infrared astronomy satellite
IRCCD
infrared charge-coupled device
IRCM
infrared countermeasure
IRCSD
infrared charge-swept device
IRE
infrared endoscope; Institute of Radio Engineers
IRED
infrared-emitting diode
iridescence
The rainbow exhibition of colors, usually caused by interference of light of different wavelengths reflected from superficial layers in the surface of a material.
IRIS
infrared intelligent spectro-radiometer; infrared interferometer spectrometer
iris diaphragm
A mechanical device designed to smoothly vary the effective diameter of a lens, thereby controlling the amount of light allowed through.
iris
The adjustable membrane located just in front of the crystalline lens within the eye. The iris gives the eye its color. See also iris diaphragm.
IRLD
infrared laser diode
IRMS
infrared measurement system
irradiance
Radiant flux incident per unit area of a surface. Also called radiant flux density.
irradiated cross-linked polyolefin
A thermosetting material used in the jacket of fiber optic cables.
irradiation
Application of radiation to an object.
IRS
inertial reference system
IRST
infrared search and track
ISA
Instrument Society of America
ISDN
integrated services digital network
ISDP
integrated signal and data processor
Ishihara test -> color perception test equipment
Equipment for testing an observer's color vision. Some tests require the identification or ordering of colored samples. The commercially available examples include: the Ishihara plates, on which...
ISI
infrared signature imaging
ISIT
intensified silicon intensifier target
ISL
intersatellite link
ISO
International Standards Organization
isobar
One of a number of nuclides characterized by an identity between their mass numbers, but each having a different atomic number.
isocandela diagram
Indication of emission brightness with degree of emission from an optical source.
isochromatic
Having the same chromaticity or color.
isochromatic lines
1. Lines of the same color. 2. A term used in photoelastic stress analysis to refer to the interference fringes produced in birefringent materials.
isocon -> image isocon
A television camera tube that preceded the development of the vidicon tube and incorporated a method to separate reflected and scattered portions of the return beam so that only the scattered...

Photonics DictionaryI

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