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373 terms

Photonics Dictionary: I

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imagescope -> fiberscope
An optical instrument consisting of an objective lens, a coherent (usually flexible) fiber bundle and an eyepiece to examine the output of the fiber bundle.
imaging science
The science of producing, recording, storing, transmitting and displaying visual images by any system (photographic, video, facsimile, etc.) in any form.
imbedding material
A thermoplastic or thermosetting material used to hold an object fixed and keep it from deterioration. In microcircuitry, the process of imbedding is known as potting.
immersed detector
A radiation detector with its active medium mounted within a lens that focuses the radiation signal. The improvement in detector performance is a function of the indices of refraction of the lens...
immersion liquid
Term synonymous with refractive index liquid, but related more to tank or chamber immersion of crystals, fibers, lenses, photoelastic models, etc.
immersion objective -> oil-immersion objective
A form of high-power microscope objective where the space between the object and the first element is filled with an oil having the same index as that element. This form reduces losses, increases the...
immersion oil
An oil required by oil-immersion objectives that is applied between the exterior of the objective lens and a cover glass or appropriate specimen.
immersion refractometer
A type of refractometer designed to measure the refractive indices of liquids. A section of the instrument is immersed into the sample being measured.
The technique that uses light to detect and analyze the antibodies produced by a specimen stained with an organic dye.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a method for detecting antigens or haptens in cells of a tissue section by using labeled antibodies to bind specifically to their antigens. IHC is used for disease...
impact fluorescence
Fluorescence formed when atoms of one element collide with excited atoms of another.
Qualitatively, the inverse of the amount of velocity produced by the application of a sinusoidal force to a system; therefore, if velocity is high, impedance at that point is low. Quantitatively,...
impurity ion
An alien, electrically charged atomic system in a solid; an ion substituted for the constituent atom or ion in a crystal lattice, or located in an interstitial site in the crystal.
impurity level
In the context of optical materials, the term "impurity level" refers to the presence of foreign atoms or molecules within the material that deviate from its regular or intrinsic composition. These...
inertial measurement unit
in phase
That state determining that two waves of like frequency will travel through their maximum and minimum values of the same polarity simultaneously.
in situ
In its natural or original position.
in vitro
In vitro is a Latin term that translates to "in glass." In scientific contexts, particularly in biology and medicine, it refers to experiments or procedures conducted outside of a living organism,...
in vivo
In vivo is a Latin term that translates to "within the living." In scientific contexts, particularly in biology and medicine, it refers to experiments or observations conducted within a living...
in-line holography
The formation of a hologram by single reference-beam interferences with waves that are diffracted or scattered from a small object.
The emission of light by thermal radiation of a temperature high enough to render the source of radiation visible.
incandescent lamp
A lamp that emits light when an electric current passes through a resistant metallic wire situated in a vacuum tube.
Flux incident per unit area of a surface.
incident light meter
An exposure meter designed to measure the light striking an object and used at a suitable location in a scene.
incident ray
A ray of light that falls upon or strikes a surface of an object such as a lens. It is said to be incident to the surface.
The presence, within the body of the glass, of extraneous or alien material. See seed; striae.
In optics, the term denoting the lack of a fixed phase relationship between two waves. If two incoherent waves are superimposed, interference effects cannot last longer than the individual coherent...
incoherent bundle
A bundle of filaments of optical glass or other transparent materials that transmit only light, not optical images. The arrangement of the individual fibers in the bundle is not sufficiently regular...
incoherent holography
The production of holograms initially from either conventional photographs or incoherent optical equipment.
incomplete radiator
A thermal source that emits less radiation than a blackbody under identical temperature conditions.
A flaw deliberately introduced into an optical fiber to prepare it for cleaving.
index dip
The decrease in the refractive index at the center of a fiber's core, caused by certain fabrication techniques. Also called profile dip.
index liquid -> refractive index liquids
A closely spaced series of well-known chemicals having a refractive index lying between 1.33 for water and 1.95 for a solution of phosphorus in carbon disulfide. They are used to identify powdered...
index of refraction
The ratio of the velocity of light in a vacuum to the velocity of light in a refractive material for a given wavelength.
index profile
In an optical waveguide, the refractive index as a function of radius.
index-guided laser
A laser diode with an output beam contained in the active layer by means of a built-in refractive index profile formed in that layer or in the adjacent cladding layers or both.
index-matching material
A material, often a liquid or cement, whose refractive index is nearly equal to the fiber's core index, used to reduce Fresnel reflection from a fiber end face.
indexing table
Generally, a rotatable table with scales marked in degrees. The fiducial marking also may be a vernier scale. The same scheme is applied to linear movement. Such devices are often applied to...
indirect illumination
The light formed by visible radiation that, in traveling from light source to object, undergoes one or more reflections. In microscopy, it is the light that falls on the object at right angles to the...
indirect radiative transition
An energy transition concerned with the combination of a photon and a phonon.
Metal used in components of the crystalline semiconductor alloys indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs), indium gallium arsenide phosphide (InGaAsP), and the binary semiconductor indium phosphide (InP)....
indium antimonide
A semiconductor material that is used as an infrared detector for light up to 5 µm in wavelength.
indium gallium arsenide camera
An InGaAs (indium gallium arsenide) camera is a type of imaging device that utilizes InGaAs sensors to capture images in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum. InGaAs is a semiconductor material that is...
indium phosphide
Indium phosphide (InP) is a compound semiconductor material composed of indium (In) and phosphorus (P). It belongs to the III-V group of semiconductors, where elements from groups III and V of the...
indium tin oxide
A material widely used as a transparent conductive coating.
induced pluripotent stem cells
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are ordinary cells that are genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state to allow the human cells to be used for therapeutic purposes....
Inductance is a fundamental property of an electrical circuit or component that describes its ability to store energy in a magnetic field when an electric current flows through it. It is typically...
inductance heater
A device used in thin-film deposition; the material to be evaporated is placed in a crucible that is heated inductively by current passing through a coil around it.
induction linear accelerator
A device used to accelerate the electrons in a free-electron laser by supplying electrical energy to the electron beam through a series of transformers.
inefficient shutter
A shutter in which the opening and closing times for a large aperture setting occupy a substantial fraction of the total exposure time so that apertures and time pair readings from an exposure meter...

Photonics DictionaryI

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