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Photonics Dictionary: P

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pulse reduction factor
Factor that relates the pulse spread occurring in a graded-index fiber to that of an equivalent step-index fiber having an identical refractive index difference between core and cladding (that is, an...
pulse repetition frequency
Number of pulses emitted per unit of time by a pulsed laser.
pulse shaping
The use of variations in the power supplied to a laser to change the shape of the output pulse. The technique is used in laser welding, for example, to condition a surface by preheating it at a low...
pulse slicer
An instrument designed for laser technology that is used to extract single pulses from the laser and transmit a portion of the pulses, thereby reducing the pulse rate to a desirable frequency.
pulse spreading
Variations in a signal passing through an optical fiber caused by the effect on the pulse of the fiber's material and mode propagation characteristics.
pulse video thermography
A noncontact, nondestructive method of measuring defects in thin composite materials, using a xenon flashtube to generate heat in a sample. A thermal imaging system detects differences in the rates...
pulse width
The interval of duration of a pulse.
pulsed laser
A laser that emits energy in a series of short bursts or pulses and that remains inactive between each burst or pulse. The frequency of the pulses is termed the pulse-repetition frequency.
pulsed laser deposition
A technique for depositing a material coating on metal, ceramic, semiconductor or polymer substrates. The interaction of laser energy with the target creates a plume of ablated material that is...
pulsed radiance
The integral of the radiance over exposure time.
pulsed sandwich holography
Separation of incident laser pulses by several seconds so holographic plates can be changed and sandwiched between the pulses. This technique combines the short exposure time of pulsed holography...
pulsed welding
A type of laser welding that produces short-duration vapor pockets without buildup of heat in the part, useful for parts that are too thick for conduction welding and that move too slowly for keyhole...
pulsed-dye laser
A laser with a gain medium consisting of an organic dye, which is carbon-based. The dye is mixed with a solvent, allowing the molecules to diffuse evenly throughout the liquid. The dye medium is...
pumping band
A group of energy levels to which ions in the ground state are initially excited when pumping radiation is applied to a laser medium. The pumping band usually lies higher in energy than the levels...
pumping radiation
Radiation used to excite an optical or laser material to a higher energy level. See optical pumping.
pupil
1. In the eye, the opening in the iris that permits light to pass and be focused on the retina. 2. In a lens, the image of the aperture stop as seen from object and image space.
pupilometer
An instrument for measuring the diameter of the human eye pupil.
purity, colorimetric -> colorimetric purity
Ratio, to the luminance of a test color, of the luminance of the spectrum color that matches the test color when mixed with white light.
purity, excitation -> excitation purity
On the CIE chromaticity diagram, the distance from the achromatic point to the sample point, divided by the distance from the achromatic point through the sample point to the spectrum locus or purple...
pushbroom scanning
Pushbroom scanning is a technique used in remote sensing and imaging systems, particularly in satellite and aerial sensors, to capture images of the Earth's surface or other objects. In pushbroom...
pv
peak-to-valley
PV
photovoltaic
PVC
polyvinyl chloride
PVD
physical vapor deposition
PVS
programmable vision systems
PVT
pulse video thermography
PWB
printed wiring board
PWM
pulse width modulation
PXSTR
phototransistor
pyramid error
Pyramid error in optics refers to an aberration in the shape of an optical surface, particularly in the context of mirrors. It is a type of distortion that can occur when the surface of a mirror...
pyrex
Trade name for a type of borosilicate glass manufactured by Corning Glass Works, noted for its low coefficient of thermal expansion. Used most often for mirror blanks; not suitable for light...
pyrheliometer
An instrument for measuring the intensity of solar radiation.
pyroelec
pyroelectric
pyroelectric infrared detector
Unlike the thermocouple or bolometer, the pyroelectric infrared detector is a current source with an output proportional to the rate of change of its temperature. Capable of extremely rapid response...
pyroelectric pulse detector
A current-source thermal detector used to detect and study the pulses obtained from particular lasers.
pyrolysis
A process that employs heat to remove polyimide plastic coatings from silica optical fibers and capillary tubing.
pyrometer -> optical pyrometer
An instrument for determining the temperature of a hot object by examining the color spectrum of the visible light it gives off and comparing it to the known temperature and wavelength spectrum of...
pyrometry -> optical pyrometry
The determination of the temperature of a source by the detection of its incandescent brightness.
PZT
piezoelectric transducer

Photonics DictionaryP

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