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Photonics Dictionary: B

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Brewster's fringes
The fringes used in the Jamin interferometer and produced by light that has been internally and externally reflected by two plane-parallel plates, inclined toward each other at a small angle.
BRH
Bureau of Radiological Health
Bridgman technique
Crystal growth method that resembles static freeze, but that induces growth by removing the ampoule from the furnace so that the freezing-point temperature gradient is unchanged during the growth...
bright-field illumination
The illumination generally used in microscopy, whereby the specimen appears dark against a light background.
bright-field image
An optical image having a brightly lit background.
bright-line spectrum
An emission spectrum consisting of bright bands against a dark background.
brightfield
Brightfield refers to a type of microscopy and imaging technique in which the specimen is illuminated with a white light source, and the image is observed or captured against a bright background. In...
brightness -> luminance
Luminous flux emitted from a surface per unit solid angle per unit of area, projected onto a plane normal to the direction of propagation. Also known as brightness and luminous sterance.
brightness control
The manual shifting bias control of a cathode-ray tube that determines both the average brightness and the contrast of a picture.
brightness meter
An instrument for measuring the brightness (luminance) of a scene. It may be a spot meter, covering an area of a degree or less, or an averaging meter, covering a broad area of the scene. Brightness...
brightness resolution
The degree to which a pixel in a digital image represents the analog brightness of the corresponding point in the original image. It is dependent largely on the number of bits devoted to representing...
brightness scale
A graduated range of stimuli perceived as having equivalent differences of brightness.
Brillouin scattering
Brillouin scattering is a phenomenon in physics where an incident electromagnetic wave (usually light) interacts with acoustic phonons (quantized lattice vibrations) in a material, resulting in the...
bring-in
The final correction of a polished surface or of an angle to the specified precision.
BRITE
Basic Research in Industrial Technology for Europe
broadband
Indicating a capability to deal with a relatively wide spectral bandwidth.
broadband dielectric mirrors
Broadband dielectric mirrors, also known as broadband mirrors, are optical coatings designed to efficiently reflect or transmit light over a broad range of wavelengths. These mirrors are constructed...
broadband filter
A broadband filter is an electronic or electromagnetic device designed to pass a range of frequencies or signals within a specified bandwidth while attenuating or rejecting signals outside of that...
broadband incident radiation -> white light
Light perceived as achromatic, that is, without hue.
broadside radiation
Radiation that occurs perpendicular to the plane of the radiation device.
broken edge
A chamfer or protective bevel.
bronchoscope
An optical instrument designed to permit the visual examination of the interior of the bronchi.
Brownian motion
The behavior of microscopic solid particles suspended in a fluid, first observed by botanist Robert Brown in 1827 as a continuous random motion.
Brucke loupe
A telemicroscope in which a negative eyepiece is used to produce erect images.
BS
bandstop
BSDF
bidirectional scatter distribution function
BSDN
block-switching digital network
BSO
bismuth silicon oxide
BSTV
boresight television
BTDF
bidirectional transmission distribution function
BTDL
basic transient diode logic
Btu
British thermal unit
bubble chamber
A large tank filled with liquid hydrogen, with a flat window at one end and complex optical devices for observing and photographing the rows of fine bubbles formed when a high-energy particle...
bubble chamber optics
Specially designed optics for the observation and photographing of hydrogen in a bubble chamber.
bubble chamber photography
The photographic recording of gas bubbles produced when particles traverse liquid hydrogen in a bubble chamber.
bubble memory -> magnetic bubble film
An amorphous film in which cylindrical bubbles of reverse magnetization can be formed to follow circuit paths usually made by depositing magnetic metal strips on the film surface. It is used in...
bubble writing -> beam-addressable technology
The application of reversible writing with a laser beam on particular storage materials. In one method, an amorphous film is heated and then crystallized for writing. Bubble writing involves the...
buckyballs -> fullerenes
Molecules composed entirely of carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid or tube. Also called buckyballs. Cylindrical fullerenes are called carbon nanotubes or buckytubes.
BUF
beam utilization factor
buffer
1. In fiber optics, a protective material applied as an optical fiber cover that has no optical function. 2. In image processing, a peripheral that stores data between two active processing stages.
bulk acoustic wave
A sound wave that travels through a piezoelectric material.
bulk nonreciprocal device
A device that functions throughout the continuous radiation of a linearly polarized plane wave, and whose nonreciprocity arises from the Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radiation.
bulk scattering
The scattering of light within a medium.
bump-forming optical disk -> dye-polymer optical disc
A type of erasable data storage device that uses a medium deposited on the disc in two layers, each dyed to absorb a different wavelength of laser light. To record data, the lower layer is heated by...
bundle
A conical or cylindrical package of light rays emanating from a common point on the object.
Bunsen screen
A photometer screen that contains a diaphragm of paper or parchment with a translucent central spot of oil or paraffin.
Bunsen-Roscoe law
The law stating that the amount of chemical change produced is proportional to the amount of light absorbed. Actually, the change is also dependent on the intensity of light -- a fact named the...
burn
A surface imperfection caused by a polisher running dry too long. It occurs with felt or plastic polishers, and may appear as a reddish brown.
burn-in
The operation of a laser diode or other component prior to its use in its intended application, as a means of testing and stabilizing it.
burn-through
A detector's ability to sense an object on the opposite side of a thin but opaque barrier such as cardboard.

Photonics DictionaryB

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