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Photonics Dictionary: N

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NON-COHO
noncoherent oscillator
noncoherent bundle
An assembly of optical fibers that will not transmit coherent images or information because the relationship of the fibers on either end of the assembly is random; Noncoherent fiber bundles are...
noncoherent radiation
Radiation having waves that are out of phase in space and/or time.
noncontact sensing -> remote sensing
Remote sensing is a method of data collection and observation where information about objects, areas, or phenomena on Earth's surface is gathered from a distance, typically using sensors onboard...
nondestructive testing
Any testing method for materials and components that does not damage or destroy the test sample. Some of the methods used are x-ray, ultrasonic, electro-optic and magnetic testing.
nonionizing radiation
Radiation that does not produce free electrons and ions, or electrically charged particles.
nonlinear optical crystal
An optical crystal that possesses a strong nonlinear dielectric response function to optical radiation. A material with a strong second-order nonlinearity must not possess a center of symmetry. See...
nonlinear optical detector
A type of radiation detector designed to recognize nonlinear optical effects, such as the Raman effect, by means of a directional, nearly monochromatic light beam; e.g., a laser beam.
nonlinear optical effect
A class of optical phenomena that can be viewed only with nearly monochromatic, directional beams of light, such as those produced by a laser. Harmonic generation and the stimulated Raman effect are...
nonlinear optical materials
Nonlinear optical materials are substances that exhibit optical properties that are not linearly proportional to the intensity of incident light. In other words, these materials produce optical...
nonlinear optical phase conjugation
The coupling of laser or light beams via nonlinear optical techniques such as four-wave mixing to achieve spatial variation of the electrical field of the target beam. This technique is also referred...
nonlinear optical processing
Derivative of the half-tone screen process involving the fabrication of a binary pulse-width modulated copy of the continuous-level input using a halftone screen and spatial-filtering single...
nonlinear optics
Nonlinear optics is a branch of optics that studies the optical phenomena that occur when intense light interacts with a material and induces nonlinear responses. In contrast to linear optics, where...
nonlinear polarization
Nonlinear polarization refers to the phenomenon where the polarization of a material responds nonlinearly to an applied electric field. In linear systems, the polarization of a material is directly...
nonlinear scattering
Direct conversion of a photon from one wavelength to a lower energy photon of another wavelength(s) due to inelastic scattering. In an optical waveguide, nonlinear scattering is usually not important...
nonmonotonic cell
Used in halftone screens to change the fundamental sampled spatial frequency of the halftoned picture, as well as varying the width of the pulse-modulated dots or gratings.
nonperiodic radiation
Irregular waves; e.g., light waves, having little coherence and a broad spectrum of frequencies.
nonpolar crystal
A crystal having identical lattice points.
nonradiative transition
A nonradiative transition refers to a process in which an electron or an atom undergoes a change in its energy state without emitting a photon. In contrast to radiative transitions, where a photon is...
nonreturn to zero
A binary code with two information states (1 and 0) and no neutral state between bits.
nonselective radiator
Also known as a gray body; a nonselective radiator is a thermal radiator that has a constant spectral emissivity with respect to wavelength throughout the spectral range being considered. The...
nonselective sensor
A radiometric device or system having uniform responsivity relative to all of the radiation parameters, or relative to one or more specified parameters, throughout all parameter intervals in which...
nonspectral color
A color whose hue is not produced by a single wavelength in the visible spectrum, but is instead produced by mixing the longest (red) and shortest (blue) wavelengths of the spectrum such as any...
nonthermal radiation
The radiation emitted from a group of charged particles that does not depend on the temperature of the source in which those particles are generated.
NORDA
Naval Ocean Research and Development Authority
normal
Sometimes referred to as the surface normal or 'surface norm'; the normal is an axis that forms right angles with a surface that light is incident upon or with other lines. The normal is used to...
normal congruence
Condition in which a perpendicular surface can be discovered for every ray in a group. This condition is commonly observed when rays emerge from a point source or object that is placed at the center...
normal dispersion
Dispersion characterized by an increasing index of refraction in the medium as the frequency of the propagating light increases towards the resonant frequency of the medium. Normal dispersion occurs...
normal emergence
The emergence of a ray along the normal to the emergent surface of a medium.
normal incidence
Light striking a surface at an angle perpendicular to the surface.
normalized frequency
Also referred to as the V number in fiber optics; the normalized frequency is a dimensionless quantity, denoted by the symbol V, given by: where a is waveguide core radius, l is wavelength in vacuum,...
notch filter
Also referred to as a band-stop or band rejection filter; a notch filter is a filter that is designed to screen out a very narrow band of radiation by transmitting most wavelengths with little...
novelty filter
A filtering device that detects what is new in a scene of interest. Often compared to that of a temporal high pass filter, these filters will remove elements that appear repeatedly throughout an...
nox
Equal to 10-3 lux; used in measuring low values of illumination and luminance.
NPP
nonpenetrating periscope
NQR
nuclear quadrupole resonance
NRA
nonredundant array
NRC
National Research Council
NRL
Naval Research Laboratory
NRMPI
nonresonant multiphoton ionization
NROSS
naval remote ocean sensing satellite
NRTI
near real-time imaging
NRZ
nonreturn-to-zero
ns
nanosecond
NSF
National Science Foundation
NSOM
near-field scanning optical microscopy
nt
nit
NTIS
National Technical Information Service
NTSC
National Television Systems Committee
NTSC triangle
The triangle in a chromaticity diagram joining the chromaticities of the NTSC phosphors, and containing all chromaticities which can be produced by additive mixture of their light.

Photonics DictionaryN

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