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Photonics Dictionary: S

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surface-enhanced Raman scattering
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful analytical technique that enhances the Raman scattering signal of molecules adsorbed on or near certain nanostructured surfaces. Raman...
surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an analytical technique that combines the principles of Raman spectroscopy with the enhancement provided by nanostructured metallic surfaces. Raman...
surface-mount device
A surface-mount device (SMD) is an electronic component that is mounted directly onto the surface of a printed circuit board (PCB) rather than being inserted into holes drilled in the board (as with...
surround
A term that describes both the color and intensity of the immediate environment of the object or image being viewed.
surveying instruments
Instruments used for measuring angles and occasionally lengths on the ground. The principal surveying instruments are the level, the stadia telescope, the transit and the theodolite. Laser...
surveyor's level
A small telescope mounted on a tripod and free to rotate about a vertical axis. A spirit level is mounted over the telescope and adjusted so that when the bubble is central, the telescope axis is...
sustaining voltage
In a laser, the voltage necessary to sustain a constant operating current, somewhat less than that needed for start-up.
Sv
sievert
SVC
Society of Vacuum Coaters
SVR
slant visibility range
swarf
The material removed during diamond machining of glass components.
SWCNT
single-walled carbon nanotube
swept source optical coherence tomography
Swept-source optical coherence tomography is an imaging technique used in medical diagnostics, particularly in ophthalmology, to visualize and analyze the internal structures of biological tissues,...
swept-source laser
A swept-source laser, also known as a wavelength-swept laser, is a type of laser that rapidly and continuously changes its emission wavelength over time. This continuous wavelength tuning is achieved...
swindle ghost image
A positive after-image that is maintained for a minute or more.
swing
The length of the oscillation of a grinding or polishing lap.
SWIR
short-wavelength infrared
SWP
short-wave pass
SWR
short-wave radiation
SXT
solar-A soft x-ray telescope
symmetrical lens
A lens system made up of two sets of similar lenses, each of which compensates for many of the aberrations produced by the other. The lens sets are arranged symmetrically on either side of the...
symmetry operation
Any systemic process that ultimately reassembles all the system's components into their initial alignment, or an arrangement that exactly reproduces the initial relative alignment.
sync
Abbreviation of "synchronization.'' In television, the timing signals used to drive the scanning process. Horizontal sync triggers the retracing of the raster line beginning at the left-hand...
synchronous detector
A detector sensitive only to signals close to or at a particular frequency that is the same as the frequency of a control signal applied independently. The synchronous detector also is...
synchronous optical network
A standard for fiber optic telecommunications interfaces, with a 1300-nm data link operating over single-mode fiber at data rates of 52, 155 and 622 Mb/s.
synchronous pumping
The technique of generating ultrashort -- down to subpicosecond -- pulses by pumping a dye laser with mode-locked laser pumps with cavity lengths the same as, or a submultiple of, that of the dye...
synchronous transmission
A mode of transmission whereby the sending and receiving stations operate continuously at a fixed relationship of phase and frequency, generating signals to control the timing of the data that are to...
synchrotron
A synchrotron is a type of particle accelerator that uses magnetic fields to steer charged particles, typically electrons or positrons, in a closed, circular or elliptical path. The name synchrotron...
synchrotron radiation
Radiation emitted by electrons when they travel in circular orbits at speeds close to that of light. Synchrotron radiation occurs in the x-ray and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum. Once considered...
synthetic aperture radar
Imaging radar that increases the sweep of its along-track (or azimuth) capacity by measuring not only the time delay of the echoes returning from the microwave pulse transmitted by its antenna (or...
synthetic interferometric image
An imaging technique in which an object moving through an interference field formed in space scatters light and is spatially recorded on a photographic film as a hologram. If the interference field...
system
A combination of components arranged so as to perform at least one function.
system on chip
Abbreviated SoC. A single chip containing all the electronic circuits required for a complete, working product. SoCs are similar to microcontroller technology but provide additional components. A SoC...

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