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Photonics Dictionary: S

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SBE
supertwisted birefringent effect
SBIR
small business innovation research
SBN
strontium barium niobate
SBR
signal-to-background ratio
SBS
stimulated Brillouin scattering; satellite business system
SC
semiconductor
scalar diffraction theory
Scalar diffraction theory is a simplified approach used to describe the propagation of electromagnetic waves, particularly light, as they encounter obstacles or apertures. It is termed "scalar"...
scalar theory of light
That theory that treats the light field as a single scalar field rather than as two coupled vector fields.
scaling law
In coherence theory, an optical law put forth by physicist Emil Wolf that explains the behavior of light as it travels away from its source over large distances in space. Light spectra are assumed to...
scanner
1. A device used to trace out an object and build up an image. One of the most common of these types is video scanning. The scanning takes place inside the television tube as electrons, guided by...
scanning
The successive analysis or synthesizing of the light values or other similar characteristics of the components of a picture area, following a given method.
scanning acoustic microscope
Also called scanning laser acoustic microscope. A device that uses high-frequency ultrasound waves to penetrate surfaces. A scanning laser beam is used as a detector, which transmits information...
scanning beam
A light, radar or electron beam used to scan according to a particular method.
scanning coherent slope microscopy
Measures by heterodyning interferometry the local slope of a vibrating sample. The method allows the reconstruction of a three dimensional map of the surface in order to determine the slope and...
scanning disc
In field-sequential color television, the rotating tricolor disc placed between the subject and the lens, or between the picture tube and the viewer.
scanning electron micrograph
The picture formed by the scanning beam of electrons in a scanning electron microscope.
scanning electron microscope
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a powerful imaging instrument used in scientific research, materials characterization, and various industrial applications. Unlike traditional optical...
scanning electron microscopy
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is an advanced imaging technique used in microscopy to obtain high-resolution, three-dimensional images of the surfaces of solid specimens. SEM achieves this by...
scanning head
A device composed of a light source and phototube used to scan a moving strip of material in photoelectric side-register control systems.
scanning line
1. The continuous thin strip marked by the scanning beam. Generally, during return of the scan, the line is blanked out. 2. The thin strip marked by the scanning process and composed of the...
scanning microdensitometer
A microdensitometer that contains a scanning stage to provide simultaneous representations of position vs. density.
scanning moire topography
A contour mapping technique that uses electronic scanning and sampling techniques instead of a reference grating (see moire topography; projection moire topography) to obtain moire fringes, producing...
scanning probe microscope
See atomic force microscope; magnetic force microscope; near-field scanning optical microscope; scanning tunneling microscope.
scanning spectroradiometer
A spectroradiometer having a means to scan different regions of the light spectrum, providing simultaneous representations of amplitude vs. wavelength of the spectrum.
scanning speed
The picture area scanned per second.
scanning spot
The spot illuminated on a cathode-ray tube by the initial impact of the scanning ray and the screen.
scanning tunneling microscope
A high-resolution imaging instrument that can detect and measure the positions of individual atoms on the surface of a material. A very fine conductive probe is placed at a distance of 10 to 20...
scannogram
The record formed on paper by a scanner.
scattered fringe period
Measure of the interference fringe pattern produced by the forward scattering of light by an optical fiber; the fringe pattern is inversely proportional to the fiber diameter.
scattered light filter
A specific type of filter designed to reduce the amount of light scattered by reflections from the edges of optical components or mounts, or from irregularities on the optical surfaces.
scattered seeds
A term used to denote the condition of a few easily visible coarse inclusions within a blank of glass.
scattering
Change of the spatial distribution of a beam of radiation when it interacts with a surface or a heterogeneous medium, in which process there is no change of wavelength of the radiation.
scattering angle
The angle between the initial and final paths traveled by a scattered particle or photon.
scattering coefficient
The portion of light scattered when traveling through a unit thickness of material.
scatterometer
An instrument used to determine the absolute or relative scatter levels of optical surfaces.
scatterometry
A measurement technique used for the rapid quantitative evaluation of surface quality based on the detection and analysis of light scattered from the surface.
scatterplate
A flat plate having its surface formed into a random pattern by abrasives. Radiation wavelengths that are longer than the scale of the pattern are specularly reflected; shorter wavelengths are...
SCC
standard cubic centimeter
Schlieren optics
An optical system that records inhomogeneities within a medium by detecting the energy refracted by that portion of the medium in which the inhomogeneity occurs. The image appears in the form of a...
Schlieren photography
The formation of a picture or image in which the density gradients in a volume of flow are rendered visible. The image is formed by refraction and scattering from areas of varying refractive index.
Schlieren photomicrography
The photomicrographic recording of Schlieren effects, irregular refractions of light from optic surfaces or areas of thin, transparent specimens, generally using a reticle with parallel transparent...
Schmidt camera
A camera that consists of a concave spherical mirror with an aspheric plate situated at the center of curvature of the mirror. The purpose of the plate is to correct the spherical aberration of the...
Schmidt correction plate -> Schmidt plate
An aspheric plate placed at, or near, the center of curvature of a spherical reflector and used to correct for spherical aberration.
Schmidt plate
An aspheric plate placed at, or near, the center of curvature of a spherical reflector and used to correct for spherical aberration.
Schmidt prism
A prism that inverts and reverts an image while deviating the line of sight by a 45° angle.
Schmitt trigger
Oscilloscope electronic circuit that produces an output pulse whose pulse width is determined by the time that the output voltage exceeds a specified level.
Schottky-barrier IRCCD
A form of infrared CCD that utilizes internal photoemission as a photodetection mechanism.
Schumann plate
A specific type of photographic plate designed with only a small amount of gelatin to function in the extreme ultraviolet and in positive-ray analysis.
scientific CMOS camera
A scientific CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) camera is a type of digital camera specifically designed for scientific imaging applications. It employs CMOS sensor technology, which...
scientific complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
Scientific complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (sCMOS) refers to a type of image sensor technology specifically designed for scientific and industrial imaging applications. Unlike traditional...

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