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Photonics Dictionary: C

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cross roller slide
A positioning slide mechanism with two rows of alternately crisscrossed cylindrical rollers.
cross section
Calculation of the probability of an interaction between two types of particles, such as light absorption, excitation or energy transfers. The probability that one incident particle will interact as...
cross wire
Fine lines, wires or threads used in the focal plane of many optical instruments to point out and locate particular objects in the field of view. They were formerly made from a single strand of...
cross-correlation
A signal-averaging technique that improves signal-to-noise ratio by comparing a sampled signal with a reference signal bearing some known relation to the received signal.
cross-coupling
1. A defect inherent in a multiple-axis positioning system whereby an adjustment of one axis causes an undesired change in another; its severity depends upon the degree to which the positioning axes...
cross-linked plastic
Plastic in which the polymer chains become irreversibly joined during molding. The cross-linking can be achieved by heating, chemical agents or irradiation.
crossed prisms
The positioning of two Nicol prisms so that their axes are at right angles to each other. With this arrangement, light transmitted by one prism will not be transmitted by the other.
crosshairs -> cross wire
Fine lines, wires or threads used in the focal plane of many optical instruments to point out and locate particular objects in the field of view. They were formerly made from a single strand of...
crosstalk
The measurable leakage of optical energy from one optical conductor to another. Also known as optical coupling.
crown glass
One of the two principal types of optical glass, the other being flint glass. Crown glass is harder than flint glass, and has a lower index of refraction and lower dispersion. Both types are used in...
CRT -> cathode-ray tube
A vacuum tube with an electron gun at one end and a fluorescent screen at the other. Electrons emitted from a heated filament are accelerated by a series of annular anodes at progressively higher...
CRT
cathode-ray tube
crush
A surface scratch or series of scratches formed by mishandling.
crush strength
The physical limit of an optical fiber or cable to withstand an applied force or weight perpendicular to the axis of the fiber.
crust
A stain in a glass surface.
cryogenics
The science and technology applied to the creation of low temperatures (i.e., approaching absolute zero).
cryopump
A vacuum pump in which pressure is reduced by condensing gases on surfaces cryogenically cooled to about 20 K (liquid hydrogen) or 4 K (liquid helium).
cryospectroscopy
The spectrographic analysis of matter that is in a cooled state. Generally, a mechanical refrigerator is used to lower the temperature of the sample, allowing isolation and study of the sample and...
cryostat
A cryostat is a device used to maintain very low temperatures, typically below the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K or -196°C) or even lower. It provides a controlled environment for...
cryst
crystal
crystal
A solid with a structure that exhibits a basically symmetrical and geometrical arrangement. A crystal may already possess this structure, or it may acquire it through mechanical means. More than 50...
crystal counter
An instrument that is used to detect high-energy particles by the pulse of the current formed when a particle passes through a normally insulating crystal to which a potential difference is applied.
crystal diamagnetism
The unusual and anisotropic diamagnetic quality observed in particular crystals such as those composed of bismuth.
crystal diode
A diode with a semiconducting material, such as germanium or silicon, for one electrode, and a fine wire "whisker'' which lies on the semiconductor, as the other electrode. The low capacitance...
crystal field
The electrostatic field acting locally within a crystal as a result of the microscopic arrangement of atoms and ions in the lattice.
crystal filter
A bandpass filter with piezoelectric crystal components for the passage or impedance of electrical signals of various frequencies.
crystal grating
A crystal that may serve as a diffraction grating if mounted effectively.
crystal laser -> solid-state laser
A solid-state laser is a type of laser that uses a solid gain medium (as opposed to a liquid or gas) to produce coherent light. The term "solid-state" refers to the fact that the active medium, where...
crystal lattice
A regular, periodic, geometric array of points corresponding to the positions of the atoms in a perfect crystal.
crystal optics
The study of the transmission of radiant energy through crystals, especially anisotropic crystals, and their effects on polarization.
crystal oscillator
An oscillator that uses a piezoelectric crystal to control its frequency.
crystal oven
A temperature-controlled container used to stabilize the temperature and resonant frequency of a crystal found in a crystal-controlled oscillator.
crystal quartz
The naturally occurring crystalline form of silicon dioxide. It is slightly birefringent and exhibits rotary dispersion of light rays transmitted along the crystal axis, both right-hand and left-hand...
crystal spectrograph
A system that applies a crystal as a diffracting agent to photograph the spectrum.
crystal spectrometer
A device designed to measure crystal properties by analysis of crystal diffraction.
crystall
crystalline
crystalline axes
The axes of symmetry in a crystal structure. See also biaxial crystal; uniaxial crystal.
crystalline lens
The internal lens of the eye. It is semielastic to permit changes in its power when focusing on objects at near distances.
crystallite
A small region within a single crystal where the molecules form a perfect lattice.
crystallized glass
Glass of special composition that is melted, formed into desired shapes, and subjected to a high-temperature treatment in which the glass undergoes a stage of nucleic formation, and a second stage,...
crystallogram
The photographic record of the diffraction pattern formed when x-rays pass through a crystal.
crystallography
The analysis of the atomic structures within crystals by means of x-ray diffraction.
CS
Composite Symbology
csc
cosecant of
CSMA/CD
carrier sense multiple access/collision detection
CSP
channeled substrate planar
CSS
conical scan sensor
CT
computed tomography; chemical transfer; center thickness
CTD
charge-transfer device
CTE
charge-transfer efficiency; coefficient of thermal expansion

Photonics DictionaryC

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