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Photonics Dictionary: E

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electric CO laser
An electrically excited laser having carbon monoxide as the lasing material and in which lasing occurs in a partial inversion between adjacent, vibrational fields. Vibrational energy is cycled...
electric dichroism spectroscopy
The use of a krypton laser system for the measurement of small molecules aligned by an electric field, by analyzing the absorption of linearly polarized light.
electric lamp
Any lamp whose emission of radiant energy is dependent upon the passage of an electrical current through the emissive medium.
electric quadrupole lens
A device that uses four electrodes set in an alternating positive-negative polarity series to focus the beams of charged particles employed in electron microscopes and particle accelerators.
electric stroboscope -> stroboscope
A device that produces brief flashes of light for observing the behavior of an object during a short interval. One of the most effective means for accomplishing this is a gaseous tube energized by...
electric vector
The electric field associated with an electromagnetic wave and thus with a lightwave. The electric vector specifies the direction and amplitude of this electric field.
electric-discharge lamp
A lamp that uses the transmission of an electric current through a gas or vapor to produce illumination. Neon, mercury and argon lamps are examples of electric-discharge lamps.
electrical length
Expression of the length of a transmission medium in terms of wavelengths of the propagating wavelength. In general, electrical length is an expression of physical length in wavelengths, radians or...
electro-optic deflection
The effect whereby a light beam is deflected by a birefringent prism when its polarization is changed by voltage applied to an electro-optical crystal through which the beam passes. The deflection of...
electro-optic deflector
An electro-optic deflector is a device that can change the direction of light beams using an electric field. It operates based on the electro-optic effect, which involves the modulation of the...
electro-optic detector
A device that detects radiation by utilizing the influence of light in forming an electrical signal. It may be a phototube; a photoconductive, photovoltaic or photojunction cell; a phototransistor;...
electro-optic effect
The change in the refractive index of a material under the influence of an electrical field.
electro-optic Fabry-Perot spectroscopy
The spectroscopic analysis of interference patterns using an electronic imaging tube with a Fabry-Perot interferometer to record the fringes.
electro-optic material
A material having refractive indices that can be altered by an applied electric field.
electro-optic modulator
An electro-optic modulator (EOM) is a device used to modulate the amplitude, phase, or polarization of light waves using an external electrical signal. Electro-optic modulation is a fundamental...
electro-optic radar
A radar system that uses electro-optic rather than microwave instrumentation and methods to perform its acquisition and tracking functions.
electro-optic shutter
A device used to control or block a light beam by means of the Kerr electro-optical effect.
electro-optic transistor
A transistor designed to respond to either light or electrical signals.
electro-optics
1. The branch of physics that deals with the use of electrical energy to create or manipulate light waves, generally by changing the refractive index of a light-propagating material; 2....
electrocapillarity modulator
A type of optical modulator with potential application in optical switching and displays, in which applied voltage causes a change of interfacial tension between mercury and an electrolyte, varying...
electrochemistry
The study of the reversible conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy. Electroplating is an electrochemical process.
electrochromic display
Type of solid-state display tube in which the readout surface is coated with a material that changes color when positively or negatively charged.
electrode dark current -> dark current
The current that flows in a photodetector when there is no optical radiation incident on the detector and operating voltages are applied.
electrodeless discharge tube
A device consisting of an airtight quartz tube that holds the material to be analyzed. When a high-frequency electrostatic field, generated by microwaves, is applied to the tube, it emits energy of a...
electrodynamics
The study of the generation of electromagnetic power by radiation from high-energy beams.
electroforming process
An electrochemical process of metal fabrication using an electrolyte, an anode to supply the metal, and a control of the electrical current and of the deposit of metal on the matrix of a reflector.
electroholography
A technology that uses electrically activated holograms stored within specially developed crystals to route information in the form of lightwave signals from one optical fiber to another within and...
electroless plating
The deposition of a metallic coating, usually nickel, on a component by chemical means rather than by electroplating; the component is immersed in a solution containing a reducing agent.
electroluminescence
The nonthermal conversion of electrical energy into light in a liquid or solid substance. The photon emission resulting from electron-hole recombination in a PN junction is one example. This is the...
electroluminescent display
The utilization of the light produced when electrical energy is directly converted into light within devices used for visual readout displays or as complex logic-circuit elements. With EL lighting,...
electroluminescent-photoconductive image intensifier
A panel of photoconductive and electroluminescent layers used as either a positive or negative image intensifier, depending on amplitude and phase of its two power supply voltages. The...
electrolysis
Conduction of an electric current through a chemical compound in its natural state, solution or as a molten, to decompose the compound.
electrolytic development
Developing a photographic image by means of an applied electric field. The methods used include electrolysis and photoconductive systems.
electrolytic shutter
A high-speed shutter, similar to a Kerr cell, that uses the birefringence produced in a liquid during the passage of an electric current through it to change the liquid's optical transmission...
electromagnetic compatibility
The ability of a device to operate without electromagnetically interfering with the operation of nearby equipment and without suffering disturbances from the electromagnetic fields in its designated...
electromagnetic environment
The distribution of electromagnetic fields in a given area. The units are volts per meter, watts per meter squared and joules per meter cubed.
electromagnetic focusing -> electromagnetic lens
An electron lens consisting of a homogeneous axial electric field and a magnetic field used in high-quality image tubes for high modulation transfer function and small geometrical distortion...
electromagnetic image tube
An image intensifier tube that uses a magnetic field for focusing. It yields high-quality images, but its use is limited by its size and weight relative to other image tubes.
electromagnetic interaction
The interaction of charged particles and electromagnetic fields.
electromagnetic lens
An electron lens consisting of a homogeneous axial electric field and a magnetic field used in high-quality image tubes for high modulation transfer function and small geometrical distortion...
electromagnetic radiation
Radiation emitted from vibrating charged particles. A combination of oscillating electrical and magnetic fields that propagates through otherwise empty space with the velocity of light. This constant...
electromagnetic spectrum
The total range of wavelengths, extending from the shortest to the longest wavelength or conversely, that can be generated physically. This range of electromagnetic wavelengths extends practically...
electromagnetic theory
The theory of propagation of energy by combined electric and magnetic fields included in Maxwell's equations.
electromagnetic wave
Wave of radiation identified by individual fluctuations of electric and magnetic fields.
electromagnon
An electromagnon is a quasiparticle excitation that combines aspects of both magnetism and electric polarization in a crystal lattice. Specifically, it refers to a collective excitation of spins and...
electromodulation spectroscopy
A type of modulation spectroscopy that measures spectral reflectance or transmittance changes induced by applying a perturbing electric field. It can be performed in contactless modes with no special...
electron
A charged elementary particle of an atom; the term is most commonly used in reference to the negatively charged particle called a negatron. Its mass at rest is me = 9.109558 x 10-31 kg, its charge is...
electron band
A spectrum band that is usually found in the visible or the ultraviolet because of the electron transitions taking place within the molecules.
electron beam
A stream of electrons emitted by a single source that move in the same direction and at the same speed.
electron cyclotron maser
A maser that relies on the fact that electrons in orbital motion in high-magnetic fields will emit energy at the cyclotron frequency. The transfer of energy is from the bunching of the electrons by...

Photonics DictionaryE

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